Oceanography/the ocean


QUESTION: what do you know about CRUSH DEPTH? is it true that its an underwater BLACK HOLE?

ANSWER: Raymond,

"Crush depth" is the depth at which the pressure underwater is great enough to crush the hull of an underwater vehicle, such as a submarine. A submarine is basically an air pocket surrounded by a steel hull. Inside, the air pressure is normal, like you would feel on the beach. As it goes deeper the surrounding water pressure increases because of the weight of the water above it. At great depth, say 100s or 1000s of feet, the pressure can crumple the hull, with of course disastrous effect.

A few underwater vehicles are made with super-strong hulls that can go to the bottom of the ocean, including the Marianas Trench, almost 7 miles deep. But normal subs can't go nearly that deep and have to worry about losing power and sinking too deep. This adds drama to movies.

There is no black hole in the ocean. You might be thinking about how real black holes, out in space, suck up and destroy everything near them and nothing can exist inside them, etc. Completely different phenomena. Just make sure you don't go too deep in your submarine.

Thanks for the question!


---------- FOLLOW-UP ----------

QUESTION: Thank you Randy for the answer, now let me ask you an unrelated question. This is about fish farms, do you know how to start one on a commercial scale?


Glad to hear from you. I don't really know much about the commercial fish farming business. You might ask Dr. Alevizon of All Experts, who is a marine biologist.

You also should look into the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute in Fort Pierce, FL. They have an aquaculture department. Last time I visited there (years ago) they were developing "designer clams", where they were selectively breeding a particular type of clam to have the colors and shapes of corporate logos!




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randy patton


Physical oceanography, surface and internal wave characteristics, ocean currents, fluid mechanics, geophysical fluid dynamics, ocean optics, coastal dynamics, modeling and simulation, data analysis, El Nino and related large scale dynamics Not an expert in marine biology (some in bioluminescence) or chemical oceanography


26 years as professional scientist for research company working mostly on Navy and other government contracts. Projects included modeling, simulations and data analysis related to Non-acoustic Anti-submarine Warfare (NAASW). Other projects included remote sensing of ocean features, statistical analysis of ship tracks, ocean optics instrumentation development, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and sonar (SAS).

Journal of Physical Oceanography, 1984, "A Numerical Model for Low-Frequency Equatorial Dynamics" (with M. Cane)

MS Physical Oceanography, MIT, 1981 BS Applied Math, UC Berkeley, 1976

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