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Oil/Gas/relative permeability


my name is mohammad abdi
I am Ms student in petroleum university of Iran
I want study on and measuring  relative permeability change when asphaltene deposition occur  in WAG process.
so I need some help and question from you
if it's possible reply me
at the end thanks for that time you spend read this mail
best regards

ANSWER: Your question is not clear.  Are you trying to work on a water alternating gas (WAG) project?

Asphaltenes can be a problem in oil extraction as it can gum up your well, they are also unwanted in refining and there for if you are extracting oil that is high in asphaltene content, you will most likely have to have equipment to deal with this issue or your oil may be discounted or even unwanted.

---------- FOLLOW-UP ----------

QUESTION: Yes I want work on water alternating gas (WAG)injection.
My proposal is:
Experimental investigation effect of asphaltene deposition on relative permeability during water alternating gas (WAG) injection process.

1-so I want know is there any method to calculate three phase relative permeability directly?

2-and in two phase relative permeability (water-oil and gas-oil) wich method is better and famous.

water injection on a oil formation
water injection on a o  

In regards to your question.

1- so I want know is there any method to calculate three phase relative permeability directly?
This is mostly a question for a individual who specializes in geophysical fluid dynamics as it pertains to the movement of several fluids (liquids and gases) through out a reservoir.  Your question is quite complex as you are trying to figure out if there is a easy and general equation to a reservoir but every reservoir is unique and different from one another, so one procedure that works in one area may not work in your area.  composition of reservoirs may also change which I am sure you are aware of.  A reservoir may not be homogeneous from one well location to the other and there for permeability and other important fluid dynamic variables may also slightly vary. When pushing fluids through a reservoir the components could also change in both directions in other words increased or decreased flow.  Decrease fluid flow throughout the reservoir could occur as fluids push certain components of the reservoir together and actually trap what you are trying to get out of the reservoir together in a isolated area, this process is sometimes referred to as fingering as your fluids that are used in WAG systems start to push out channels in your reservoir.
   WAG fluids could also cause asphaltene to accumulate in particular areas if a chemical such as a polymer or hot oil treatments should be implemented in the overall WAG design.  Asphaltenes often gather at or near the extraction well location as this is often the area in which your injector wells are pushing the WAG fluids.  
   To try and better answer your question on is there a method to calculate 3-phase, I am sure you are aware that one can do a volumetric calculation to estimate the remaining fluids in a reservoir.  WAG projects that are in a depleted reservoirs (ones with little to no reservoir pressure) often have a zero as its total pressure and since the volume is already known on the gas in place then one should have a better understanding of what they are working with before the WAG project happens.  During the WAG process you should be monitoring the fluids and pressures that you are injecting and the volumes and pressures at the extraction location.  It is important to remember that no matter what you do in life, weather in the oil patch or not, there is a degree of error that you will encounter and have to fix.  

2-and in two phase relative permeability (water-oil and gas-oil) wich method is better and famous?
  This all depends on what components that make up the reservoir and how well the reservoir is known and defined before a WAG system is implemented.  WAG systems are almost a trial and error type approach and should require a lot of attention and maintenance to try and catch problems such as asphaltene accumulation and or reservoir fluid fingering and once these problems are caught then need to have solutions drafted and implemented at a timely manor.

If you are interested in trying to get work I would suggest that you seek companies that are actively doing this types of procedures.  I would also suggest that you seek out old depleted fields and talk with the owners directly.

another problem is adequate preexisting development of that reservoir. The most ideal candidate for a WAG system is one with the best porosity. the more wells in the reservoir the better and the most that is known of the reservoir such as 2d,3d, and 4d seismic the better.  WAG prospects can become extremely expensive and are risky as if done wrongly they can result in a zero production and return.

personally I see there being some problems with you trying to conduct a study like this with a company. the operating side of a company would not want to know if they made a mistake. a company would also not want to have your findings go public either no matter if they were good or bad.  so because of this I would think it may be difficult for you to find a position to do this type of study.  I would strongly suggest that you try and find old fields that are not in operation and deal with the land owners directly.

In my experience water-oil is the most used in the U.S.  The main reason for this is mostly cost.  In most places in the US you have a water table that is relatively shallow and easy to access, some well could also be re-permitted to become water wells in some states. this can then be a driving forces for your water flood.    The gas-oil part of the equation often costs a lot of money as you normally have to obtain the gas from outside resources along with the added expense in equipment.  It is much easier to pump local fluids such as water then outside gases.  I have seen a lot of fields where they have implemented the water side of things and the economics either did not work out as well as they thought or they just didnt want to spend the extra money in adding a gas system.


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Chris Termeer


I can answer a broad variety of questions about oil and gas in the upstream, midstream, and downstream sectors of the industry. Topics of knowledge include but are not limited to: * History of the industry * Basic questions about formation of hydrocarbons (hydrocarbon window, geologic processes that create oil and gas formations) * Types of formation structures, source rocks, and traps * Surrounding production analysis (how to, importance of etc) * Basic questions about magnetic surveys, geometric surveys, seismic surveys (2D and 3D) and radiometric surveys. (Including relative strengths and weaknesses and how performed.) * Basic questions of cable tool drilling * Complex questions about rotary drilling, its components, operations, how to set up a rig. Drilling operations including fluid/mud, cuttings analysis, downhole testing, directional drilling, making and tripping pipe, cementing casing (importance of and how performed etc), common drilling mistakes and problems. * Complex questions about post- (though sometimes occurs during) drilling activities such as well logging, sidewall and whole core sampling, drill stem testing, reserves analysis and projections. * Basic questions about well completions including installation of surface wellhead and subsurface safety valve, well perforations, lateral and horizontal completions, hydraulic fracturing, (I prefer the spelling form "fracking" for the active verb and "frac" for the noun form) and wellbore swabbing. * Basic questions about so-called "flush production" (others call primary recovery) such as natural gas drive, water drive, compaction drive and gravity/dip drive. * Complex questions about artifical hydrocarbon lift technologies such as the sucker rod pumpjack, plunger lift pumps, gas lift pumps and electric subsersible pumps. * Basic questions about secondary and tertiary recovery techniques including water flooding, gas injection (be it CO2 or N), anaerobic recovery and so forth.


I have worked in this industry for many years and have at least some experience in all aspects of it. My specialty in recent years has been in upstream exploration and production. I have worked as a Consultant and general partner for a variety of projects in Texas, Illinois, Louisiana, Colorado. My experience is also built on my extensive writing in the oil and gas industry on a series of blogs and websites and my recently published book, Fundamentals of Investing in Oil and Gas.

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Bachelor's of Science from Michigan State University with a variety of other coursework at other Universities including the University of South Florida and University of Wollongong.

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