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Pathology/Tongue biopsy results


My husband had another biopsy on his tongue in October on a small reddish spot his dentist noticed. The results of the biopsy were fragments of squamous mucosa showing mild chronic inflammation, squamous epithelial hyperplasia and parakertosis. No definitive evidence of dysplasia or malignancy identified. He does suffer from geographic tongue on the same side if his tongue which a biopsy showed about two year ago. Could these results also be pointing to the inflammation caused by the gt? What exactly does the statement "no definitive evidence mean"?  And hyperplaisa and parakertosis? Do we have anything to be worried about with these findings? I asked the oral surgeon these same questions but he was very short with us and didn't answer half of them. Thanks

Hello Kim:

I do apologize for the delay in responding to your question. We just relocated and it has been crazy here.

The biopsy report indicates presence of inflammation which is mild and could be due to any number of reasons, a tooth rubbing against the tongue, hot foods, toothbrush touching the part of the tongue etc.

Hyperplasia is - increase in number of cells in the area along with parakeratosis where the cells of topmost layer of tongue retain their nuclei. Normally the topmost layer lacks nuclei, its like the top layer of skin which regularly sheds and you see it as dry skin. Because of the inflammation part of the surface layers of tongue would be damaged / denuded and healing can cause these changes.

At present these changes are not worrisome, do not show anything which can label the lesion as cancer, hence "No definite evidence of cancer"

Geographic tongue causes ulceration and inflammation but is totally benign condition and does not lead to cancer.
If any more such spots appear, they will have to be reviewed / biopsied.

Take care


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Neha Dahiya MD


Help patients understand the medical terminology of their lab results and / or tissue biopsy reports.


I am a pathologist and director of clinical laboratory services. I have been a practicing pathologist for last 9 years in a 350 bed multi specialty hospital laboratory in India.

Indian association of pathologists and microbiologists.
International Academy of Cytology
International association of Pathologists - Indian division
Indian association of Cytology

MD (pathology) MBA

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