Persian Language/ and : opposites


Dear Saeed,

I do hope you are well.

You seem to have a lot of phrases with فاقد and عدم:
انسانهای فاقد رحم
درختان فاقد برگ
مردم فاقد حق رای
The above seem to be adjectives, or rather adjectival phrases.
عدم اطمینان
عدم تعادل
The above seem to be nouns, or rather nominal phrases, “nominal” being the adjective corresponding to “noun”.

I imagine that the opposite of a word with عدم is simply the same word without عدم: i.e. the opposite of عدم اطمینان will be اطمینان – is that correct, please?

But what about the opposite of phrases with فاقد? Do you use دارا, perhaps? If so, the following will be the opposite of the above phrases, won't they?
انسانهای دارای رحم
درختان دارای برگ
مردم دارای حق رای
But am I right?

Best wishes, and many thanks,


PS Just one thing that’s niggling me: how do you translate “or rather” in a sentence like the above?
“The above seem to be nouns, or rather nominal phrases.”

Hi Simon,
I also wish the best for you.

عدم، فاقد، بی are similar ans often the same.

فاقد اطمینان، عدم اطمینان، اطمینان نداشتن
فاقد اعتماد، عدم اعتماد، بی اعتمادی، اعتماد نداشتن

بی (less) is a better solution.
بی رحم = فاقد رحم
بی برگ = فاقد برگ
بی ارزش = فاقد ارزش
بی رنگ = فاقد رنگ

regarding omitting عدم to make theme positive you are right. If you remove the عدم the word becomes positive.
Regarding adding دارا you also right. You can add دار too.
دارایِ برگ = برگ دار
رنگی = دارای رنگ = رنگ دار

But you can't always use this formula because many Persian words have their own forms.


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I can answer to questions about Persian (Farsi) as second language as well as history of persian art and culture.


I am an English - Persian translator with more than 8 years of experience and about 30 translated books including around 8000 pages. I have been interested in History of world art (painting and architecture), history, mythology, etc. As a poet I also have considerable experience in Persian poetry.

B.A. of political sciences. M.A. of political sciences.

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