Persian Language/the below


QUESTION: Dear Saeed,

Please, how do you translate “the below” when you are referring to something written later on in a text? Somehow I don't think it's simply پایین.

I say this because the opposite, “the above”, is not بالا but rather ذیل (zeyl), as you can see in this quote:
حرف اضافه ٔ «به » بمعانی ذیل آید:
بهمراه : به ادب سلام کرد.

I should perhaps point out that معانی is used because there are a number of meanings given, but only one has been cited by the person who quoted the above to me.

Best wishes, and many thanks,


ANSWER: Dear Simnon,

It is correct. Below is پایین and above is بالا.
the problem is ذیل
It is very formal and we often don't use it. ذیل is پایین. also means زیر
You are allowed to use each of them.

---------- FOLLOW-UP ----------

QUESTION: Hi again Saeed and many thanks for the variants.

Sorry, I think I was unclear in my meaning.

What I was wondering was this: What is the exact opposite of ذیل, please? I.e. do you have an Arabic, literary word just like ذیل but meaning "above" instead of "below"?



Yes, it is فوق (foq)
Ex for below:
پاسخ در بخش ذیل آمده است
پاسخ در بخش زیر آمده است
ذیل = زیر

Ex for above:
در بخش فوق به پاسخ اشاره شد
در بخش بالا به پاسخ اشاره شد
فوق = بالا

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I can answer to questions about Persian (Farsi) as second language as well as history of persian art and culture.


I am an English - Persian translator with more than 8 years of experience and about 30 translated books including around 8000 pages. I have been interested in History of world art (painting and architecture), history, mythology, etc. As a poet I also have considerable experience in Persian poetry.

B.A. of political sciences. M.A. of political sciences.

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