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Pet Rats/New Cage Mate?

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Hi There,
We have a 2 yr old rat (Ivy) who was adopted with her cage mate/ sister.  They bonded, but also had distinct personalities (our rat has always been a kind of "do her own thing" kind of girl).
About a month ago, her sister died, and we looked for signs of depression.  To complicate matters, Ivy went under surgery shortly after her sister's passing.  She had mammary tumors removed (pretty big surgery for the size of the tumors).  My husband and I had to go on a trip so we had rat-sitters while she was convalescing, but we are fairly certain that this was not enough (the sitters dropped in everyday, so she did not have constant attention/ affection).
Ivy is still having a few medical complications - possibly a pituitary issue and has lost a significant amount of weight.  She's pretty lethargic, but enjoys our company and we are doing our best to ensure she's getting the love (and vet visits) she needs.  Today, the vet gave her subcutaneous fluids (35 ml) and was prescribed prednisone.  So, she's been dealing with dehydration on top of it and seems down.
My husband is wondering if we should find her a cage mate to lift her spirits, but I am concerned that adding a cage mate at this time might bring her additional stress at this time.
Do you have any advice about what we should do regarding a new rat adoption?  They would be in separate cages and introduced gradually, but I don't want to create unnecessary stress or complicate her healing at this time.
Any advice would be greatly appreciated!!!

Best,

Stacy

Answer
Hi Stacy,
I'm sorry your girl is still having health problems. Does she have poor coordination?  A pituitary tumor (PT, something that is very common in older female rats,)is the most likely cause of neurological symptoms. Along with the prednisone I recommend she also be on amoxicillin, which can temporarily help to shrink the tumor, and will help prevent secondary bacterial infections which can occur because prednisone suppresses the immune system. See more info below.

If she has a PT there may be no point in getting her a new cagemate, as rats with a PT treated with prednisone usually need to be euthanized within a couple of months. There is a treatment which tends to be much more successful, called cabergoline, although it is more expensive. You can read about it in the Tumor article on my website at www.ratfanclub.org. It can give them up to 8 months of good life, and then getting a couple of new rat babies to interact with her, not necessarily to live with her, would be a good idea.  Good luck!
Deb

Based on my 30 years of experience, for a rat who is sick, no matter the symptoms, amoxicillin is the first treatment I recommend. This is because amoxicillin is best for secondary infections, which can get very severe very quickly, killing a rat in a matter of hours or days, and require immediate treatment. Baytril is not always effective for secondary infections, so if you try it first, the could die. Therefore, I recommend all rat owners have amoxicillin on hand. If the amoxicillin doesn’t work within 2-3 days, then you can try doxycycline or Baytril for mycoplasma, which is a slow chronic disease, so you usually have more time for treatment. Secondary infections can cause respiratory symptoms (but not always), lethargy, poor appetite, and other symptoms, and are common in rats, especially young rats and those from pet shops. Older rats can also get secondary infections on top of mycoplasma. Amoxicillin is also best for abscesses.

All vets will have amoxicillin, and in the U.S. you can also get amoxicillin over the counter as aquarium fish capsules from some feed stores and specialty aquarium stores, and online. Call the stores in your area and ask before driving there.  Do NOT tell them you are buying it for your rats!  It is legal for them sell it over the counter only for fish.  You will not find it at Petco, PetSmart, etc.  If you can’t find amoxicillin, you can use ampicillin which is basically the same thing, it just isn’t absorbed as well, so just double the dose to 20 mg/lb twice a day. Be sure to get CAPSULES.

Some vets won’t prescribe amoxicillin for rats because they learn in vet school that you can't give amoxicillin to hamsters or guinea pigs (it will kill them) so they sometimes generalize this to all rodents.  But amoxicillin is fine for rats and mice, whose digestive systems are very different from quinea pigs and hamsters.  I use it all the time.  (For more about getting your vet to prescribe amoxicillin, see the info at the bottom.)

Rarely you will have an individual who will be allergic or sensitive to amoxicillin, and the most common side effect is diarrhea.  In most cases, this diarrhea is mild enough to be controlled with probiotics (good bacteria for the intestines) but if the diarrhea is severe it will stop when you discontinue the treatment with amoxicillin.

You can order amoxicillin capsules www.fishmoxfishflex.com.  If your rat is already sick, be sure to ask for overnight delivery! They will even ship OVERSEAS!

You can also get amoxicillin mail order from Jedd’s Pigeon Supplies at 800-659-5928.  You can also order on their website at http://www.jedds.com/StoreFront.bok. Go to the shopping cart to search for items.

You want to mix the amoxicillin in a yummy liquid such as Ensure or slightly diluted Hershey’s strawberry syrup. You can buy a 1 ml syringe for measuring at most pharmacies. A 3 ml or 12 ml syringe is also helpful for measuring out the flavoring. Amoxicillin does not dissolve but forms a suspension. The powder will sink to the bottom, so before taking out a dose, you need to stir the mixture with the syringe extremely well, being sure to scrape up all the powder off the bottom so it is in suspension.

Mix one capsule of 250 mg amoxicillin in 7.5 ml of flavoring (If you have 500 mg capsules, use twice the amount of flavoring: 15 ml.) A small pill bottle is about the right size to mix it in.  Keep in the refrigerator.  Amoxicillin doesn’t taste too bad to most rats and most rats will eagerly lick this right from the tip of the syringe.  The normal dose is 0.3 ml/lb twice a day.  You can go as high as 5 times that normal dose if necessary, and it’s a good idea to give a double dose the first time.

If your rat won’t take the amoxicillin mixture voluntarily, you can try mixing it in yummy soft food. Or, you can make the dose 0.1 ml which is too small for them to spit out when you put it in the back of their mouth.  Mix one capsule with 2.5 ml of flavoring. Then the dose is only 0.1 ml/lb twice a day.

You need to know about how much your rat weighs. The normal dose is 10 mg/lb twice a day but you can safely go as high as 50 mg/lb if needed. A 250 mg amoxicillin capsule contains 25  1-lb doses.  

Give the dose twice a day.  If it's going to work the symptoms should improve within 2-3 days.  If it does work you need to continue the treatment for at least 2-3 weeks.  If it doesn’t work then you need to try a different treatment.  If the symptoms are all gone within 3 days you should continue the treatment for 3 weeks.  If it takes longer for all the symptoms to go away, give it for 4-8 weeks and maybe longer.  The longer it takes for all the symptoms to go away, the longer you should continue the treatment.  If the symptoms stop improving, or if the amoxicillin doesn't help at all, you will need to try doxycycline instead.

You can order doxycycline capsules here:
http://www.jedds.com/shop/bird-biotic-capsulessachets/
If you would prefer a liquid they also have Doxysyrup or Doxyvet Liquid. Most people will want to order Doxysyrup, which is 10 mg/ml. The normal dose is 0.25 ml/lb twice a day. If necessary you can give twice this.

If you own a lot of rats, the most economical choice is Doxyvet Liquid, which is 50 mg/ml. The normal dose is 0.05 ml/lb twice a day. If necessary you can give twice this. Some rats don’t like it, but it can be diluted with yummier liquid or mixed with food. If you mix 1 ml of the Doxyvet with 5 ml of flavoring, and then the dose is 0.3 ml/lb twice a day. Depending on the flavoring you use, the mixture should probably be refrigerated.

You can also often find 100 mg capsules of doxycycline at a good price on eBay.

For 100 mg capsules or packets of doxycycline, mix one capsule or packet with 12 ml of flavoring (slightly diluted strawberry syrup works good) and then the dose is 0.3 ml/lb twice a day. Store in the refrigerator and stir before taking out a dose.

If the doxycycline doesn’t help either, you will need to try Baytril. You can buy 100 ml of 10% oral generic Baytril (enrofloxacin is the generic name but it can be called enroxil or enrofloxacine) from pigeon supply companies for birds. The dose for a 1-lb rat is 0.1 ml, which means that 100 ml is 1000 rat doses!  Very economical.   You need to give it twice a day.  Do not refrigerate the Baytril! Also, do not rinse out the syringe you use for it because for some strange reason the syringe will wear out really fast. If you never rinse it out, it will last forever.

I’ve had the best luck giving Baytril in 4-6 ml of a product such as strawberry Ensure or Boost in a baby food jar lid, or in 1/8 teaspoon of the soy baby formula powder, making a paste.  It helps if you put the baby food jar lid on a small magnet to help keep your rat from tipping it over.  

You can order it by phone from Jedd’s Pigeon Supply at 800-659-5928  or online at http://www.jedds.com/shop/misc/ (it is listed as misc. item #5002) price check 6/28/16 $19.95 for 100 ml, by far the cheapest!
from  http://www.allbirdproducts.com/  price check 6/28/16 $23.95 for 25 ml.
or http://www.ladygouldianfinch.com/product_baytril.php  price check 6/28/16 $24.47 for 25 ml.

You will find more info about treating respiratory infections on my website at www.ratfanclub.org on the Rat Info page.  I also highly recommend you order my Rat Health Care booklet.  It is only $7 plus shipping (CA residents add 58 cents tax.)


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Concerning amoxicillin and veterininarians:  Many vets don’t want to use amoxicillin on rats.  This is probably because in vet school they learn that amoxicillin can’t be used in guinea pigs, rabbits or hamsters (because it kills the good bacteria in their intestines), and they probably generalize this to rats and mice.  However, rats and mice usually tolerate amoxicillin quite well.  In my experience only a very small percentage of them will get diarrhea from it, and this is not life-threatening; it will usually clear up with a probiotic, or the amoxicillin can be stopped.

Here are some references for using amoxicillin in rats for your vet to check if they are reluctant to prescribe amoxicillin:

Exotic Animal Formulary, Third Edition, James W. Carpenter, MS, DVM editor, Elsevier Saunders Publishing
Page 377, Antimicrobial and antifungal agents used in rodents.
Ampicillin for mice and rats: dosage 20-50 mg/kg PO, SC, IM q12h
(Note: ampicillin and amoxicillin have essentially the same adverse reactions and effectiveness, so they can be used interchangeably)

Blackwell’s Five-Minute Veterinary Consult: Small Mammal, Second Edition, Barbara L. Oglesbee. 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Page 588, For Bacterial Infection
For rats (do not use in hamsters), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (12.5–15 mg/kg PO q12h) may also be used.

ViN (Veterinary Information Network, Inc.) Website

Thomas Donnelly, BVSc on 02/05/2006  “Amoxicillin is safe to give rats.”

Johanna Briscoe, VMD, on 07/08/2004  “I have used Clavamox liquid in a rat and it worked beautifully on an abscess that I thought may have been from a bite….  Clavamox dose same as in other mammals—13.75 mg/kg PO BID.”
(Note: Clavamox is the brand name for a mixture of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid.)

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Pet Rats

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Debbie Ducommun

Expertise

I can answer any questions about pet rats, but you will probably be able find answers to simple questions more quickly on my website at www.ratfanclub.org/helpfinfo.html. If you have a life-threatening emergency you can try calling me at 530-899-0605. I am not usually on the computer on the weekend.

Experience

I have been "The Rat Lady" since 1985 and am recognized as one of the world's experts on pet rats. I have 3 published books and already answer lots of questions about rats daily.

Organizations
President of Rat Assistance & Teaching Society

Publications
I am a monthly columnist for Pet Business magazine, and my writing has appeared in other magazines. I have 3 published books.

Education/Credentials
BA in Animal Behavior

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