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My favorite academic subjects  are mathematics, science , and philosophy. I find these subjects fascinating because its purpose is to tackle the big questions of reality!  every thing we see and don't see exists in space-time. Everything can be observed, detected, measured, understood through thorough analysis.

Logically how can space and its dimension not exist?  In  order to understand what we don't know, we must assume what can only logically be! like in the beginning there was no universe, but a designer would assume the most logical universe. like going from Point A to Point B would require the existence of motion. does space and nothingness have essence?  ( I think space is a something because it can be measured!)

what is space really? in my opinion it isn't empty, it is full of virtual particles. science is about understanding possibilities, and thru that make our lives more enriching and interesting.

change is an interesting topic to me, nothing is static forever, unless nature is that way. so why is life full of change? maybe with out change there are no qualities; no life, no motion. I think Reality is full of potential; anything positive is possible. It is up to us to harness nature in a productive manner.

What is the purpose of freewill? What does it add to the reality of Divine Creator? God is perfect, so how can He be more perfect? is perfection a state or a process leading to perfection?

You ask a large number of questions, each of which has thousands of implications. Let me do what I can in a short space...

Our common-sense notion of space and time is the (then-revolutionary) Newtonian view of about 400 years ago; it is not built-in. Kant held that time and space were not real in themselves but were "forms of intuition" by which we grasped the (ultimately unknowable) real world around us. Einstein showed (and subsequent experiments have proved) that Einstein is very likely correct: space and time are not absolutes. Cosmology shows that space and time did not exist before the Big Bang. Yes, there are virtual particles, but that flows from the Einsteinian concept of space and time, together with quantum theory. "The universe is not only stranger than we imagine; it's stranger than we CAN imagine."

Some theories of quantum physics do, indeed, require that every possibility must be realized somewhere, sometime. Indeed, the probability concepts in quantum physics overlap to quite and extent with the concepts of possibility in philosophy.

The upshot of all that is this: given our best current scientific understanding, space and time need not have existed at all. They flow from the contingent laws of physics.

Simple-mindedly, the purpose of free will is for us to be free to do whatever we want. Less simple-mindedly, philosophers would argue that if a universe had agents (things that can do things) in it, it must perforce have agents with free will. Christian philosophers hold that we have free will because we are created in the image of God, who has free will.

Perfection is in the eye of the beholder of it. There is a long history of philosophical argument around the idea that a perfect being (God) must necessarily exist. This is generally not taken seriously by contemporary philosophers.

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Charles K. MacKay


I can answer a number of questions in philosophy; my academic concentrations (graduate school at Cornell) are ethics, political philosophy, and 19th-century German philosophy (Marx, Hegel, and hangers-on.)



BA, New College, 1971, Philosophy and Religion
Awarded four graduate fellowships upon graduation

MA, Cornell University, 1974
Social and Political Philosophy, Danforth Fellowship

All course work and dissertation drafts completed for Ph.D. Cornell University, 1971-1975, Social and Political Philosophy, Danforth Fellowship

Courses in statistics and microeconomics, George Washington University and The American University, 1976-1978

EXPERIENCE: Health Insurance Specialist 2005 - Present
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service
US Department of Health and Human Services

Allentown Business School Instructor (Computer Science) 2003 - 2005

Northampton Community College
Adjunct Professor of Philosophy 2003 -2005

Lehigh County Community College
Adjunct Professor of Philosophy and Computer Science


Medicare Made Easy (with Charles B. Inlander) Addison-Wesley, 1989

Good Operations, Bad Operations (with Charles B. Inlander) Viking Press, 1993

Health Rebooted: Information Changes Everything (in press), 2008

Bachelor of Arts, Philosphy and Religion, New College, 1971 Master of Arts, Social and Political Philosophy, Cornell University, 1975

Awards and Honors
Danforth Fellowship, Woodrow Wilson Fellowship

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