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Physics/atomic structures



Has a proton, electron or an atom had ever been seen individually? We say that proton and neutron are present in nucleus and electron revolves around the nucleus ? What is the evidence for this? We say that in benzene, carbon atoms are joined in hexagonal shape with double bonds, but did any one saw that and has it been proved?

"Seeing" depends on what you mean. Detections using instruments of various types have certainly measured many of the properties of all of the mentioned particles. As for direct imaging, yes! Some recent advances in imaging molecules have been amazing! Go to to see the rings you are referring to.


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James J. Kovalcin


I am teaching or have taught AP physics B and C [calculus based mechanics & electricity and magnetism] as well as Lab Physics for college bound students. I have a BS in Physics from the University of Pittsburgh and a Master of Arts in Teaching from same. I have been teaching physics for 34 years. I am constantly updating my skills and have a particular interest in modern physics topics.

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