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# Physics/Smallest sized materials

Question
Dear expert.
I HAVE ONE QUESTION.
.
My assumption start from the article reading for nano tech.
Now our tech could control the materials with the size of nano.

My assumtion is below.
1. There is 20nano sized semiconductors.
- that means scientist could control the materials with such little size.
But when we see the smallest chip or cpu or gps chip, these are all 2mmx2mm.

2. Does it means  there is some tech limitation for developing such nano size gps chip or module. Eventhough we have nano tech ( regardless of nano tech)
3. So I want to know what is the limitation for tech eventhough todays tech have the tech for contoling the materilas with the size of nano.

In my point of view
If we have the tech of nano, we could make cpu as a nano size (eye cannot see) or nano gps (eye also cannot see)...
What is the main reason.
Because I am not the scientists, pls. Solve my query.
Thank you

Hello terry,

Yes circuitry is quickly getting smaller. But also more complex. What is the limit in the miniaturization? The many thousands of transistors that make up complex chips such as a cpu each need to have a minimum number of atoms. The technology is not yet at that level of miniaturization. I don't know what the minimum number of atoms is that may eventually be reached.

But there are other factors that will limit the ability to reduce the size of the device that the chip is part of. Therefore maximum miniaturization of the chip(s) may be a waste of energy. The chip needs to be connected to the outside world. The connectors that bring in power for the operation of the chip, bring the instructions and information in, and then send the result of the calculations out will certainly be larger than the chip itself.

I hope this helps,
Steve
Questioner's Rating
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Physics

Volunteer

#### Steve Johnson

##### Expertise

I would be delighted to help with questions up through the first year of college Physics. Particularly Electricity, Electronics and Newtonian Mechanics (motion, acceleration etc.). I decline questions on relativity and Atomic Physics. I also could discuss the Space Shuttle and space flight in general.

##### Experience

I have a BS in Physics and an MS in Electrical Engineering. I am retired now. My professional career was in Electrical Engineering with considerable time spent working with accelerometers, gyroscopes and flight dynamics (Physics related topics) while working on the Space Shuttle. I gave formal classroom lessons to technical co-workers periodically over a several year period.

Education/Credentials
BS Physics, North Dakota State University
MS Electrical Engineering, North Dakota State University