I read that CMB radiation indicate the evidence for Big Bang. Does it also indicate expansion for universe. What is the "Axis of Evil" that scientists refer with respect to CMB radiations.


CMB radiation does indicate expansion of the universe.  It goes hand-in-hand with the big bang and the universe's subsequent expansion, hence its energy distribution as the universe expanded and cooled off.

Regarding the term "axis of evil," human beings have a tendency to give things dramatic names.  This has caused some people, unfortunately, to read theological overtones into physics where none exist.  Aside from that it was hard to explain, there was no reason to call it "evil."  It turns out that the asymmetry in the temperature of the universe has a vague structure to it.  Not the temperature itself, but specifically in the quadrupole and octopole moments of the variation in the temperature.  Keep in mind, massive amounts of theoretically modeled data had to be subtracted from the raw satellite data in order to generate this sky map, and no one is quite certain that it was perfectly done yet.  The result was a kind of structure, a slight asymmetry to the CMB from the early universe that was aligned around an axis.  The axis had to point somewhere, and it seems to be roughly aligned with the axis of our solar system (and, consequently, many other solar systems in the galaxy that just happen to be aligned with our own).  This alignment, coincidental or not, has basically no bearing on our everyday lives...but some scientists found it unsettling and gave it that unfortunate name.


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Dr. Stephen O. Nelson


I can answer most basic physics questions, physics questions about science fiction and everyday observations of physics, etc. I'm also usually good for science fair advice (I'm the regional science fair director). I do not answer homework problems. I will occasionally point out where a homework solution went wrong, though. I'm usually good at explaining odd observations that seem counterintuitive, energy science, nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics, and alternative theories of physics are my specialties.


I was a physics professor at the University of Texas of the Permian Basin, research in nuclear technology and nuclear astrophysics. My travelling science show saw over 20,000 students of all ages. I taught physics, nuclear chemistry, radiation safety, vacuum technology, and answer tons of questions as I tour schools encouraging students to consider careers in science. I moved on to a non-academic job with more research just recently.

Ph. D. from Duke University in physics, research in nuclear astrophysics reactions, gamma-ray astronomy technology, and advanced nuclear reactors.

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