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Dear Dana Krempels.
I thank You for your help.
My rabbit has two problems.
First problem: the presence of mineralization in the kidneys.
Second problem: the abscess on the lower jaw.
what anesthesia is best to use the rabbit?
How to remove the mineralization of the kidneys?
What you need to follow the diet rabbit?
The age of a rabbit is 9 years old.
Please help us.

The results of ultrasound diagnostics:
26х15мм the right kidney, cortical layer 4 mm, and the renal pelvis 6mm.
The left kidney 23х17мм, cortical hypoechoic layer 4mm, 6mm pelvis increased echogenicity.
liver: increased echogenicity of the liver parenchyma.
Conclusion ultrasound:
Conclusion ultrasound:

Conclusion ultrasound:
nephritis, moderate calcification in the renal pelvis of the left kidney.
- moderate increase in echogenicity of the liver parenchyma.
specific gravity 1015
Protein 0,14 g / l
PH 9
Urobilinogen +-
leukocytes 0-1
Crystals ammapet magnesium phosphate crystals
Urine protein/urine creatinine of 0.2

Dear Dasha,

Here goes...

> First problem: the presence of mineralization in the kidneys.

Not a good thing, but not uncommon in older rabbits.  It is a side effect of metabolic bone disease/problems with calcium metabolism.

> Second problem: the abscess on the lower jaw.

Same as above, unfortunately.  If the abscess is in the bone, then the best treatment to try is dual-acting Penicillin G Procaine/Benzathine injections.  Our vets use this at 50,000-75,000IU/kg once every 48 hours.  It can take several weeks to clear a jaw abscess, but it is often very effective as long as the bacteria causing the problem are sensitive to penicillin.  This is very often the case in rabbits.

> what anesthesia is best to use the rabbit?

Our vets generally prefer isoflurane with premedication of buprenorphine.  Pain management is critical, so a dose of metacam before the surgery will help prevent excessive inflammation and pain.  Buprenorphine can be used for a day or so after surgery, if necessary, along with metacam.

> How to remove the mineralization of the kidneys?

There is really no reliable way to do this.  Some people have used a dietary supplement of potassium citrate to reduce the calcification, but I have never tried this and so cannot speak to its efficacy.

> What you need to follow the diet rabbit?

Surprisingly, reducing calcium in the diet of a rabbit with calcium metabolism deficiency is not recommended. These rabbits are already excreting too much calcium via the kidneys, and are not maintaining adequate blood levels.  Hence, they build up calcium in the kidneys and lose bone mass.

Dr. Frances Harcourt Browne, a real expert in this area, suggests not reducing calcium in the diet unduly.  Rather, increase bunny's outdoor time to get adequate vitamin D (but NEVER put a rabbit in direct sunlight!  That could be fatal.  Always be sure bunny is in a shaded, cool place and carefully protected from predators by a fence and covering on top.).  Access to natural grass (no pesticides or fertilizer) can help promote a natural chewing motion that keeps the molars smooth and healthy.

A nine year old rabbit is going to be starting to show signs of age, and these are some of them.  I wish we could stop that aging process, but sometimes all we can do is make it easier.

I hope some of this helps.



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Dana Krempels, Ph.D.


I've lived with companion rabbits for more than 35 years, and consider them members of my family. I can answer any questions about the biology and health of rabbits, from the commonplace to the unusual. But please note:

RULE #1:

Find a rabbit vet at for immediate help, and don't risk your bunny's life by spending time asking questions online! If you can't get in touch with your vet, read these Emergency Sick Bunny Instructions.

If you have found a wild baby rabbit, please read these EMERGENCY INSTRUCTIONS FOR WILD BABY RABBITS and then use this link to FIND A LOCAL WILDLIFE REHABILITATOR who can give you the right advice.

RULE #2:
Help me help you! Please make your subject line informative if you have an urgent question. then LET ME KNOW IN THE SUBJECT LINE so I can give your question highest priority over non-urgent questions. If you don't do this, then I can't guarantee timely assistance!

For all the best, most accurate rabbit health, care and behavior information, visit The House Rabbit Society.


I have been rescuing and rehabilitating domestic and wild rabbits for about 30 years. I have written articles for many rabbit rescue publications, as well as for the veterinary journal, Exotic DVM. I own EtherBun, the internet's largest listserve dedicated to health, care, and behavior of domestic rabbits.

Houserabbit Adoption, Rescue, and Education, Inc. (H.A.R.E., Inc.) president National House Rabbit Society (Board member)

Exotic DVM
Warren Peace (Journal of the House Rabbit Society of Miami)
Various newsletters of the House Rabbit Society, nationwide

Ph.D - Biology
B.S. - Biology
B.A. - English

Awards and Honors
Lightspan Academic Excellence Award for web site on rabbit health and biology

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