School papers, Essays, Dissertations/which one...


Hello there. It's me again. Happy to be writing to you.

How are you? Hope you are well.

I have a question. Which choice is correct? Please explain your reasons.

a) The Karamazov Brothers has been translated by Mr. Ignat Avsey.

b) The Karamazov Brothers is translated by Mr. Ignat Avsey.

c) The Karamazov Brothers was translated by Mr. Ignat Avsey.

Thank you very much. Best

They are all grammatically correct. b) is odd, but still grammatically correct. a) and c) mean the same thing, so I can't think of any reason to choose between them. The meaning of b) is unclear. Does it mean the translation is in progress? But this is not a problem of grammar. It is a problem of meaning.

The issue is of tense. Tense should always reflect reality. If Mr. Avsey is in the process of translating the book, the verb should be "is translating." If he's through with the task, one of the past-tense sentences is correct.

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Dan Smith


I have been a professional writer and editor for more than 30 years, taught speech and English composition at the university level, and have developed speech and English composition courses and seminars for businesses. I am experienced in editing a wide variety of materials, especially business, scientific, and other academic papers. I am familiar with all the major style guides.


I have edited any number of graduate papers and other technical materials in such advanced fields as civil and electrical engineering and semiconductor fabrication. I have extensive experience in working with non-native English speakers.

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