School papers, Essays, Dissertations/Internal Citations


I am writing a paper on the Nazi Medical experiments and desperately need help with internal citations. How often are they used? Where do they go? What information constitutes using one? Do you use them after every sentence, or someone told me that you use them only when you use numbers? I am confused by this and my teacher did explain the format of these citations, but not ow often to use them or where within the report to put them.


You must cite every idea or or piece of information that is not your own. That includes direct quotations and paraphrases of the work of others. You do not need to cite every sentence, but you need to cite every complete idea that does not belong to you. Obviously, some ideas take more than one sentence to express. At the end of the complete idea is sufficient. You do not need to cite your own analysis or conclusions. Those belong to you. The person who advised you only to cite numbers is wrong.

Direct quotations are usually offset in the document by indentation or quotation marks if they're relatively short. You must put a citation at the end of every direct quotation whether it is in the paragraph or in a separate, indented paragraph.

Citations of paraphrases or summaries of the thoughts of others should come at the end of the thought. Sometimes, you may have two or more sources for what is essentially the same thought. In such cases, cite all.

Hope this helps.

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Dan Smith


I have been a professional writer and editor for more than 30 years, taught speech and English composition at the university level, and have developed speech and English composition courses and seminars for businesses. I am experienced in editing a wide variety of materials, especially business, scientific, and other academic papers. I am familiar with all the major style guides.


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