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what is the manipulated variables for the question does the shape of the container affect the freezing rate of water?

Hi kassandra,

The non manipulated is the freezing point of water.  All others are manipulated.  Shape and size of the container, time, how cold the freezer is and so on.  The key is to limit the number of manipulated variables.  So, besides the freezing point of water what else can be fixed?  Since you are testing freezing rate you can  make the time variable a fixed rate.  Since you are interested in the shape of the container you can fix the volume of water.  How about the material the container is made of.?   

The best is if you are only looking at one test variable that changes. Shape of the container.  How long does it take water to freeze based on shape?

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Ralph Salier-Hellendag


Science Fair Judge for many years and experience with robotics, biology, chemistry, industrial processes, metalurgy and metal forming.


Science Fair Judge for many years and have helped several students get to state level competition. Most recently 2 of my students received state level awards and one went on to the nationals in Washington DC.

BA Archaeology - Anthropology
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