Seventh-Day Adventists/Laws, Sabbath and Romans 14:5,6
Frank wrote at 2014-06-09 17:33:23
6 7 2014 - Laws, Sabbath and Romans 14:5, 6
<<< The expert's answer: >>>
Seventh-day Adventists, and other sabbatarians, are fond of using Matthew 5:17-19 as a proof-text for Sabbath-keeping. They reason that the Ten Commandments are not abolished; therefore, we are obligated to keep the 7th day Sabbath. Is that what the text says? Let’s take a look at it in some detail.
It is acknowledged by sabbatarians and non-sabbatarians alike that Matthew 5:17-19 is the pivotal statement from which the whole New Testament theology of law grows. Therefore, it is of great importance that we properly interpret this passage.
“Do not think that I came to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I did not come to abolish but to fulfill. For truly I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest letter or stroke shall pass from the Law until all is accomplished. Whoever then annuls one of the least of these commandments, and teaches others to do the same, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but whoever keeps and teaches them, he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven” (Matthew 5:17-19 NASB).
Immediately let’s note that the SDA Church teaches its members to read v. 17 in a different manner than the rest of Christian churches. They teach that it says, “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Ten Commandments. I have come not to abolish them, but to continue them.” This way of reading v. 17 has been reported by ex-SDAs and confirmed by my own work with current SDAs. The text does not mention the Ten Commandments but “the law”. By the term “law” Jesus means all the law of the Old Covenant not just the Ten Commandments.
<<< Even if Mat 5:17 did mean not “just” the Ten Commandments the law always includes the Ten Commandments as the Ten Commandments define the moral law. When a command such as “bear one another’s burdens” is given, its transgression is defined by the Decalogue. When a command such as “love God” or “love your neighbor” is given, its transgression is defined by the Decalogue. There is a reason the Decalogue is kept in the heavenly sanctuary in the true Ark of the Covenant. When the earthly sanctuary came to a close, Christ’s work in the heavenly one began. The original and true Decalogue kept there is the standard of righteousness as it reflects the character of the creator. >>>
Another key term in this passage is “fulfill”. By the term fulfill Jesus means to complete. This being so he will bring an end to the Old Covenant that includes the Ten Commandments.
<<< The expert wants us to believe that to bring to an end is not synonymous with destroy (KJV). We are not so easily fooled. In the Garden of Eden the “law”, if not transgressed, would have guaranteed life for the new race for eternity. Because of sin the image of God in man, His holy law of love, was defaced and the sentence of death incurred. “And the commandment, which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death.” (Romans 7:10 KJV) In the context of Romans 7 the “commandment” (to love) that was ordained to life is defined by the Decalogue (see verse 7). When this law of love was transgressed by Adam and Eve, a plan was devised by the creator to meet the demands of justice while offering pardon to the fallen race and restoring the image of God in fallen man. A law of sacrifices was added to the moral law that was to teach fallen man about the promised savior until He should accomplish the promised atoning sacrifice. When the sacrifice was made, Christ, who was the object of all the rituals, sacrifices, oblations and annual feasts in the Law of Moses, began His intercessory ministry as High Priest in the heavenly sanctuary on behalf of repentant sinners. He is in the process of fulfilling all that was written of Him in the law and the prophets. Christ ratified the New Covenant on the cross. If the law were to be changed it had to have been done by then. A Testament isn’t written after the death of the one who makes it. The entire plan of salvation is revealed in the Hebrew sanctuary and its services and this is the law that was rendered obsolete in performance by His atoning sacrifice. >>>
In Matthew’s gospel Jesus uses the word “law” seven times (5:17, 18; 7:12; 11:13; 12:5; 22: 40; 23:23). If we, for the moment, exclude 5:17 & 18 we can see that Jesus always means the whole Law of the Old Covenant, all 613 laws, never once does he mean the Ten Commandments apart from the other laws. This is extremely important information that the SDA church has not transmitted to its followers.
<<< The basis for the Jewish law is the Ten Commandments. It isn’t until His atoning sacrifice that Jesus begins to fulfill what was written about Him in the law and the prophets. “Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith unto him, We have found him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.” (John 1:45 KJV) The fact that Jesus was talking about the Law of Moses and the prophets says nothing about the status of the Ten Commandments except that they have always defined the moral law for man. No matter where they are written, whether on stone or in the heart, the Ten Commandments define the moral law in its entirety. >>>
I will present just one example from the seven above showing that Jesus meant more than the Ten Commandments when he referred to the law. [Please read all seven references in your own Bible.] “Or have you not read in the Law, that on the Sabbath the priests in the temple break the Sabbath and are innocent?” (Matthew 12:5 NASB). Obviously Jesus is not referring to the Ten Commandments which do not address this issue at all (see Numbers 28:9-10).
<<< The foundation for the Law of Moses is the Ten C’s. “These words [the 10 C’s] the LORD spake unto all your assembly in the mount out of the midst of the fire, of the cloud, and of the thick darkness, with a great voice: and he added no more. And he wrote them in two tables of stone, and delivered them unto me.” (Deuteronomy 5:22 KJV) They represent the moral law for all mankind and they are complete as given. They encompass every possible transgression. The Law of Moses with its statutes and judgments that were written in a book by Moses is but the application of the Decalogue containing all the laws to govern the new nation. The Ten Commandments do not depend on the Law of Moses and exist independent of it.
“Then verily the first covenant had also ordinances of divine service, and a worldly sanctuary. (Hebrews 9:1 KJV) This ceremonial law was not spoken by God to the people at Sinai. It was given privately to Moses by God and written by Moses in a book. The statues and judgments and ceremonial law were all part of the law for the new nation called the Law of Moses. >>>
Now, does 5:17 & 18 follow this pattern? I believe that the answer is emphatically “yes”. Jesus uses the key term “the law or the prophets”. This term means all the laws found in the Books of Moses (the first five books of the Bible) and all the writings of the prophets, these all pointed to Jesus. He was not abolishing any of these, but fulfilling them all.
<<< When Christ said he hadn’t come to abolish the law or the prophets but to fulfill, he meant just that. The ceremonial law and Hebrew sanctuary revealed the entire plan of salvation in types and shadows. They were a prophecy of the role Christ would play in ending the controversy with Satan beginning with His crucifixion and ending when sin and sinners are destroyed in the lake of fire and the earth is made new. Of course, He also fulfilled the prophecies concerning his birth, life, death and resurrection on earth.
The Ten Commandants are a reflection of the character of God which is love. This is the law that A&E, who were made in His image, transgressed. It is the law all have transgressed. His holy law is the foundation of His government and is immutable and unchangeable. That is why Christ had to go to the cross to rescue fallen man. There was no other way. “And he went a little further, and fell on his face, and prayed, saying, O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless not as I will, but as thou wilt.” (Matthew 26:39 KJV) >>>
“Now He said to them, ‘These are My words which I spoke to you while I was still with you, that all things which are written about Me in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled’” (Luke 24:44 NASB). In doing this Jesus is bringing them to their God-ordained conclusion. “Christ is the culmination of the law so that there may be righteousness for everyone who believes” (Romans 10:4 NIV).
If Jesus meant only the Ten Commandments he would have had to specify that since his use of “the law” would automatically cause his hearers to recall the entire Old Covenant Law.
<<< “For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone that believeth.” (Romans 10:4 KJV) Keeping the moral law has no power to restore fallen man to righteousness so that cannot be the law spoken of here. The temporary remedy for sin is fulfilled by Christ and brought to an end. Now, justification is through faith in Christ apart from the deeds of the ritual law. There is no forgiveness in keeping the moral law but neither is it dismissed. “Is he the God of the Jews only? is he not also of the Gentiles? Yes, of the Gentiles also: Seeing it is one God, which shall justify the circumcision by faith, and uncircumcision through faith. Do we then make void the law through faith? God forbid: yea, we establish the law.” (Romans 3:29-31 KJV) Since the expert has assured us the law in these verses is the Old Covenant law we can know that it did not all end at the cross. >>>
Jesus used a similar term “the law and the prophets” two times in Matthew. “In everything, therefore, treat people the same way you want them to treat you, for this is the Law and the Prophets.” (7:12 NASB). This is not from the Ten Commandments, but from the teaching expressed in Leviticus 19:18. “On these two commandments hang all the Law and the Prophets” (22:40 NKJV). The two commandments spoken of by Jesus in 22:40 are not from the Ten Commandments, but from the other 603 laws of the Old Covenant (see Deuteronomy 6:5 & Leviticus 19:18). This should help one to see clearly that Jesus meant more than the Ten Commandments when he said, “the law or the prophets”.
<<< There is no law of 603 laws or 613 laws. That is an invention of a Jewish Rabbi at least 100 years after the cross. “To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them.” (Isaiah 8:20 KJV) The two commandments that the expert says are not from the Ten Commandments are the commandments that the 10 C’s define. “Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. This is the first and great commandment. And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets.” (Mat 22:37-40 KJV) Those who love God and are led of the Spirit do not transgress the first four commandments that define love for God and those who love their neighbor and are led of the Spirit do not transgress the last six commandments that define love for our neighbor. >>>
The other key term of v. 17 is “fulfill”. Matthew uses this term 14 times besides the usage in v. 17 (1:22-23; 2:15; 2:17; 2:23; 3:15; 4:14-16; 8:17; 12:17-21; 13:14-15, 34-35; 21:4-5; 26:53-54, 56; 27:9-10). From these usages we learn that fulfill almost always means to complete and end.
<<< The word fulfilled as used in these verses by Matthew is in reference to prophecies. He is simply indicating that the thing that was prophesied has come to pass. >>>
Jesus brings the law and the prophets to their intended goal. He does not permit us to simply continue with the Old Covenant laws. He has fulfilled and completed them. They have no force over Christians. “But if you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the Law” (Galatians 5:18 NASB).
<<< The most important point here is that Galatians 5:18 makes it clear the moral law hasn’t been done away with. This verse says whoever is not led of the Spirit is under the condemnation of the law. The reason it is said the children of Israel were under the Law is because Christ had not yet made the atoning sacrifice that removes the condemnation for believers. “And for this cause he is the mediator of the new testament, that by means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first testament, they which are called might receive the promise of eternal inheritance.” (Hebrews 9:15 KJV) No longer is the temporary remedy for sin a requirement as Christ is its fulfillment. >>>
The SDA teaching that the Sabbath command is still binding because of 5:17 is not found in a proper exegesis of the text. The context does not even mention the Sabbath, therefore, the SDA has no basis for the claim that in 5:17 Jesus meant to continue the Sabbath.
<<< The context is the law that was given to the children of Israel at Sinai and repeated by Moses at Moab. The Ten Commandments are the covenant and the covenant is the law. The law for the new nation was also given at that time as it was about to be established. One has to wonder how the expert can say the context doesn’t mention the Sabbath when the Sabbath was the test of obedience given to the children of Israel as they were led from Egypt into the wilderness and is one of the ten eternal precepts. >>>
The SDA interpretation of v.18 is very flawed. They see “the law” as the Ten Commandments none of which will pass away. This is nothing more than a denominational interpretation aimed at convincing the person that is not astute in Bible interpretation that one must keep the Old Covenant sign, the 7th day Sabbath.
<<< This used to be the understanding of all the protestant denominations. Because of their reluctance to restore the Sabbath of the 4th commandment and conformity to the world they have made an image to the beast power that wants to establish the idol (Sunday) Sabbath as a requirement for all. >>>
The major problem with the SDA interpretation is that the law always means the entire 613 laws of the Old Covenant. Nowhere in the Bible are we given permission to separate these laws. Accordingly, if the SDA interpretation of v. 18 were correct it would mean that all 613 laws of the Old Covenant are still in effect! This, of course, is absurd. However, it is the logical result of their flawed theology.
<<< As has already been pointed out, there is no 613 commandment law in the Bible. It is the figment of an overactive imagination. God never intended for anyone to count the number of commands in the first five books of the Bible. Others have tried it and there is no agreement as to the correct count. It is no sin to do so but it is pointless. It has no value. It appears the expert is trying to separate the moral law given at Sinai from the moral law that A&E transgressed, by tying it to the Jewish nation. That is a deadly deception. >>>
The key part of v. 18 that is overlooked, either purposely or subconsciously, by SDA apologists is “…not the smallest letter or stroke shall pass from the Law until all is accomplished.” This closing phrase is extremely important to the understanding this passage. The Old Covenant, all of it, is done away with because in Christ Jesus it has all come true. Therefore, even if “the law” meant only the Ten Commandments they would not be binding on us today because of the important phrase “until all is accomplished” or “fulfilled”. Once fulfilled, the law and the prophets have reached their intended goal of leading us to Christ. Then the law, like a tutor, is dismissed.
<<< What nonsense. The Decalogue is the standard of righteousness. It existed before sin and will exist when sin is no more. The law is established, not done away with (Romans 3:31). Concerning the written law, it will no longer condemn as no one will be transgressing it. Its principles will have been established in the heart and mind as the rule of life for all. But not until the sanctuary is cleansed and sin and sinners are destroyed in the lake of fire, completing the plan of salvation, can it be said that this time has fully come. >>>
“But before faith came, we were kept in custody under the law, being shut up to the faith which was later to be revealed. Therefore the Law has become our tutor to lead us to Christ, so that we may be justified by faith. But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a tutor” (Galatians 3:23-25 NASB).
<<< Paul uses the word faith as meaning faith in Christ for righteousness rather than the temporary remedy for sin that Christ brought to an end. The tutor was not the Decalogue. The tutor was the Law of Moses with its ceremonial remedy for sin that taught the people about the plan of salvation and the promised redeemer. >>>
This passage is extremely clear that the Old Covenant Law, that includes the 7th day Sabbath, is no longer in effect for Christians. We now answer to a higher moral code (see Matthew 5:20-48; John 13:34, 15:12). This moral code is called the Law of Christ (see 1 Corinthians 9:21; Galatians 6:2).
<<< The “law of Christ” does not do away with the Decalogue. It applies to the intents and purposes of the heart as well as to deeds (or misdeeds). Under the New Covenant the law is written in the heart and mind and kept through love for Christ in obedience to the Holy Spirit (Hebrews 8:10). The commandment to love one another is not new. What is new is that Christ is now our example. The evidence of our faith is our love for one another. If we are not acting from love we will be in transgression of the principles of the Decalogue. >>>
The context of vs. 17 & 18 is that the entire Old Covenant is to remain in force until Jesus fulfills it all. Once “all is accomplished” it all becomes obsolete.
<<< It is a contradiction in terms to say the moral law has been accomplished. It is not something that is accomplished. It is the rule of life for believers and the standard of righteousness in the judgment. >>>
“Or do you not know, brethren (for I am speaking to those who know the law), that the law has jurisdiction over a person as long as he lives? For the married woman is bound by law to her husband while he is living; but if her husband dies, she is released from the law concerning the husband. So then, if while her husband is living she is joined to another man, she shall be called an adulteress; but if her husband dies, she is free from the law, so that she is not an adulteress though she is joined to another man. Therefore, my brethren, you also were made to die to the Law through the body of Christ, so that you might be joined to another, to Him who was raised from the dead, in order that we might bear fruit for God. For while we were in the flesh, the sinful passions, which were aroused by the Law, were at work in the members of our body to bear fruit for death. But now we have been released from the Law, having died to that by which we were bound, so that we serve in newness of the Spirit and not in oldness of the letter” (Romans 7:1-6 NASB; cf. 8:1, 2; 10:4; Galatians 2:16; 3:23-26; 5:18).
<<< Dying to the law does not end the law. It simply removes its condemnation. When we die to the law and are joined to Christ we do not sin. The law is not ended, however, it is established. The Spirit does not end the law. It establishes it’s principles as the rule of life. Just as it was before sin. >>>
It should not be a new or unique idea to Bible-believing Christians that the Old Covenant should become obsolete.
<<< The moral precepts that were written and engraved in stone as the 'Old Covenant' are written and engraved in the heart and mind under the New Covenant of faith in Christ for righteousness. The law is not obsolete. The New Covenant was made because the house of Israel did not keep the Old Covenant. (see Heb 8:9, 10) >>>
The Bible is clear that it was always God’s intention for the Old Covenant to end. The Bible says that the Ten Commandments, which were the heart of the Old Covenant (Exodus 34:28; Deuteronomy 4:13), were always destined to pass away (see 2 Corinthians 3:7-11); that the Old Covenant was given to Israel only for a divinely appointed time period ending with the coming of Christ (Galatians 3:17-19); that we are to cast out the Old Covenant (Galatians 4:21-31) after it leads us to Christ (Galatians 3:23-26).
<<< “But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away: How shall not the ministration of the spirit be rather glorious?
(2 Cor 3:7-8 KJV)
The ministration of the moral law (engraven in stone) was to point out sin. It could do no more. The ministration of the remedial law (written) was to provide a substitute means of atonement and reveal the promised savior until he should accomplish His atoning sacrifice. Christ and the plan of salvation as seen in the ceremonial law was glorious but the ministration of the Spirit is rather glorious as it restores fallen man to righteousness. Once again, it is seen that the power of the Holy Spirit is given to establish the principles of the law, not to end the law. >>>
Even if these clear Scriptures were not known one could logically infer that the Old Covenant becomes obsolete once the New Covenant is established. Why live under the Old way when the New is superior? “But now He has obtained a more excellent ministry, inasmuch as He is also Mediator of a better covenant, which was established on better promises” (Hebrews 8:6 NKJV). This shows the Old Covenant to be obsolete since the New is “a better covenant”. Paul then logically concludes that the inferior first covenant has become obsolete. “By calling this covenant ‘new,’ he has made the first one obsolete; and what is obsolete and outdated will soon disappear” (Hebrews 8:13 NIV). The fact that it was God’s will to completely take away the Old Covenant is overlooked or ignored by the SDA hierarchy. They prefer to believe it was only some of the Covenant that was taken away not all of it.
<<< The moral law of the Mosaic (old) covenant which is the Ten Commandments and the moral law of the New Covenant is the same law. It is the same whether written in stone or in the fleshy tables of the heart. “My son, forget not my law; but let thine heart keep my commandments: For length of days, and long life, and peace, shall they add to thee. Let not mercy and truth forsake thee: bind them about thy neck; write them upon the table of thine heart:” (Proverbs 3:1-3 KJV) >>>
In order to further bring out the fact that “the law” in vs. 17 & 18 refers to all the Old Covenant laws as well as all the teachings of the Hebrew Bible, let’s look first at clear Biblical evidence that Jesus meant more than the Ten Commandments. “Jesus answered: ‘Is it not written in your law…’” (John 10:34). Then Jesus quotes from Psalm 82:6 not from the Ten Commandments or even from the Torah. Another such example is “However, this only fulfills the text in their law…” (John 15:25). Then Jesus quotes from Psalm 69:5. Next let’s look at an example showing that the Jews of Jesus’ day understood “the law” to refer to more than the Ten Commandments or the Books of Moses. “The crowd objected to his words: ‘We have heard it said in the law that the Messiah is to remain forever’” (John 12:34). This concept is found in Psalm 89:37. So in all three examples the Psalms are called “the law”. This proves that by “the law” is meant something more than the Ten Commandments or even the Books of Moses. It is only the SDA hierarchy that believes that “the law” equals the Ten Commandments. This they believe despite the clear Biblical evidence to the contrary.
<<< And we thought the law was 613 commandments found in the first five books of the Bible (according to the expert). It seems he isn’t content with discounting the first five books but the entire Old Testament. Actually the verses the expert is presenting as the law in the Psalms are not commandments or laws at all. >>>
Further evidence comes from Paul. In his Letter to the Romans, Paul quotes from Psalms, Proverbs, and Isaiah and calls them “the law” (see 3:10-19). We read in his first Letter to the Corinthians, “It is written in the law…” (14:21). Then Paul quotes from Isaiah 28:11-12. All this serves to show that the use of the term “law” was often used as an easy way to refer to the teachings of the Hebrew Bible. In Matthew 5:17-18 Jesus was simply using a form of speech prevalent in his day to refer to the entire Hebrew Bible.
<<< None of the verses that are quoted by the expert outside the first five books of the Bible seem to be commandments or laws at all. Regardless, when the law and the prophets is mentioned the law that defines sin as its transgression is the Decalogue. When a general ‘it is written in the law’ or ‘it is written in your law’ is used to mean the Old Testament scriptures, context has to determine what type of law it is (if it is a law or commandment at all). >>>
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<<< The expert can weave a pretty story but it is often missing substance. And here is why we don’t fall for the experts “exegesis”. “Owe no man any thing, but to love one another: for he that loveth another hath fulfilled the law. For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. Love worketh no ill to his neighbour: therefore love is the fulfilling of the law.” (Romans 13:8-10 KJV) Here the principle is clearly stated by Paul that love is the fulfilling of the law and the law is the 10 C’s. In this instance the six that define how we are to demonstrate our love for our fellow man. And we have already seen that the first four define how we are to show our love for God. >>>
The righteousness of God’s people is no longer determined by conformity to Old Covenant rules, regulations, and sacrifices, but by conformity to the teachings of Jesus, the New Law Giver. The Old Covenant only possessed mere shadows that Jesus was to perfect. “So let no one judge you in food or in drink, or regarding a festival or a new moon or sabbaths, which are a shadow of things to come, but the substance is of Christ” (Colossians 2:16-17 NKJV).
<<< The standard of righteousness is the 10 Commandments. Jesus calling the book of Psalms part of the Jewish law does not alter that fact. The law to love one another is from the Old Testament. “Thou shalt not avenge, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD.” (Leviticus 19:18 KJV) >>>
When the best arrives the good must disappear. John the Baptist illustrated this for us. “He must increase, while I must decrease” (John 3:30 NASB). John was good as a herald of the coming Christ, but the Christ is far better. Likewise, the Old Covenant was good as a herald of the coming New Covenant, but once the New Covenant arrived the Old Covenant had to be removed. So it is with the sign of the good Covenant, the 7th day Sabbath (see Exodus 31:13, 16-17), it disappears in order to make room for the superior New Covenant.
<<< The law and the prophets will reach their fulfillment when sin and sinners are destroyed in the lake of fire and the earth is made new. If it is easier for heaven and earth to pass than for one jot or tittle of the law to fail then the law will not fail (or end). >>>
This truth is illustrated for us by the incident on the Mount of Transfiguration. There Moses and Elijah representing the Law and the prophets are removed from the scene leaving only Jesus and his better covenant (see Matthew 17:1-8).
<<< Moses and Elijah were sent to encourage the savior in the hour of his greatest trial. Moses represents those who die and are resurrected at the second coming while Elijah represents those who are translated without seeing death. >>>
Christians, with the exception of sabbatarians, joyfully accept the superior Sabbath rest of the New Covenant—Jesus. We no longer physically rest on a day. We now have a greater spiritual rest in a person.
<<< Jesus isn’t called a Sabbath rest in the Bible. Those who come to Christ find deliverance from the bondage of sin. They work six days and rest the 7th according to the commandment. Those who have kept the idol Sabbath (Sunday) in ignorance are not condemned but those who reject the 7th day Sabbath are in danger of the judgment. When the idol Sabbath is commanded by civil law with a death decree the Sabbath commandment becomes a test for all. >>>
“Come to Me, all who are weary and heavy-laden, and I will give you rest. Take My yoke upon you and learn from Me, for I am gentle and humble in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. For My yoke is easy and My burden is light” (Matthew 11:28-30 NASB).
You may still have questions about the other texts that you mentioned, if so just let me know and I will be happy to explain them in light of the New Covenant.
God Bless You,
<<< In Christ's love,
“And it is easier for heaven and earth to pass, than one tittle of the law to fail.” (Luke 16:17 KJV)