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Sociology/russian politics


i like to ask you that my prof. has assigned us a question to write a 7 pages repot on reading of Steven L. Sonick's "Russia's Transition": is Democracy delayed Democracy Denied. the article is very hard to understand but i couldn't understand the question she is asking.
here is a question
Solnick offers three seemingly exclusive ways to understand the transition in russia: Democratic, Feudal or Oligarchic. identify and describe all characteristics of the three interpretations Solnick offers. which is the best way to understand russia's political trajectory. identify the one best reflect your persecutive.

can you please tell me in simple words what she want us to do. i am specially confused about the world political Trajectory. i looked up in dictionary, searched online. don't understand what is that mean? please if you can also give the brief expiation on the word i will be grateful to you. thank you very much.

A political trajectory is the direction undertaken by a country. Therefore, trajectory is a trend that indicates a tendency towards which a historical event (but also a personal story ....) moves (turns). Sometimes trajectory also outlines the path - the way - that is done to arrive to the finish line. Basically, a trajectory always indicates - more or less clearly - a starting point and an arrival point. There may be in the middle of the deviations that can change its point of destination (not necessarily).
There are several addresses school. Some think that the trajectories are already predetermined ... (a historical destiny hangs over the people!) In this case, the orientation of thought is strictly deterministic. A certain historical causes of a country inevitably follow certain effects. It is the classic scheme “cause-effect”.
Others think that there may be specific policy choices that affect (diverting) the historical path of a trajectory not taken for granted.
For example, in the USSR, the October Revolution was made not slavishly following the pattern set out by Marx. For Marx, communism comes after the mature capitalism. In pre-revolutionary Russia there was a semi-feudal system. From this, there was immediately a jump to a socialist regime omitting certain steps envisaged by Marx. It was a political choice.
Hi, Cristina.  


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dr. Cristina Carpinelli


Cristina Carpinelli is a sociologist/politologist. She deals with research works, from economic and social point of view, concerning Central-Est Europe (Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland), South-Est Europe (Bulgaria, Romania, balkan Countries), Russia and all Former Soviet Union Countries. She has also become an expert on social welfare and gender and family politics in Countries mentioned above. She can't answer the questions relative to other geo-economic and political areas or about other questions outside her competence/knowledge. She lives and works in Milan (Italy).


Cristina Carpinelli wrote many articles and essays on the Ussr and on the transition of the Fsu from a planned economic system to a free market one. She wrote some books published by Nuovi Autori, Franco Angeli, Achab, Sedizioni, Zambon, Mimesis, Amazon.

She is a Scientific Committee Member of CeSPI (International Problems Study Center of Sesto San Giovanni - Milan ) as an expert on CEE (Central-Eastern Europe) and South-Eastern Europe (including Russia), and a monthly contributor to “noidonne” Magazine for gender and family politics in CEE (including Russia). She is part of the team experts of the U.S. Site “AllExperts” for the categories: “Sociology” and “Russia (News & Politics)”. She was part of the teaching staff for the training module “Objective Russia” (professional diploma for economic operators - ISPI school; module suspended from 2015) and now She is part of the teaching staff for the training module “European Union and ethnic and national minorities” (diploma in “European Affairs” - ISPI school). She is a member of the Italian Association for History Studies on Central and Eastern Europe (AISSECO - Since May 2015) and a member of the editorial staff of Mitteleuropean Social Watch (OSME - since January 2016).

La società sovietica negli anni della perestroika (Nuovi Autori, 1991); Donne e famiglia nella Russia sovietica (F. Angeli, 1998); Donne e povertà nella Russia di El’cin: l'era della transizione liberale (Franco Angeli, 2004); “Identities in Transition: Fsu Countries after the Collapse of Real Socialism” (CeSPI, 2004); La Russia a pezzi (Achab, 2008); “L’allargamento dell’Europa ai paesi dell’Est” (CeSPI, 2008), paper presented at the Conference “Quo vadis, Europe?”, organized by Municipality of Sesto San Giovanni - Milan, November 18, 2011; “Paesi Baltici tra integrazione europea e ‘apartheid’” in: Ripensare l’Europa dalle fondamenta, Mimesis, 2014 (Conference proceedings “Ripensare l’Europa dalle fondamenta”. Conference was organized by CeSPI and Municipality of Sesto San Giovanni - Milan; November 30, 2013); “Ucraina: un paese spaccato in due” (CeSPI, 2014), paper prepared for the Conference “Crisi Ucraina: quali possibili chiavi di lettura?” (May 16, 2014) organized by the Municipality of Sesto San Giovanni (Milan) and by CeSPI; “Nato, Ucraina, Russia” (CeSPI, 2014); L’Unione Europea e le minoranze etniche: Case Studies: Ungheria, Romania e Paesi Baltici, co-author Massimo Congiu (CreateSpace - an Company, May 18, 2016). Coming soon: Russia as told through the history of its mass media.

Cristina Carpinelli graduated during the academic year 1983/84 with the thesis "Alcuni aspetti del processo di invecchiamento della popolazione in Unione Sovietica: demografia, previdenza sociale, occupazione e salute" (Some aspects of the ageing process of the population in the Soviet Union: demography, social security, jobs and health) - State University of Milan, Faculty of Political Sciences (Statistics Department). The thesis of degree was elaborated in the Ussr, at the State University Lomonosov of Moscow.

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