Sociology/Marx's quote



Please let me know what does Karl Marx mean by saying that :"the past weighs like a nightmare on the minds of the living"?


󍥮 make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly encountered, given and transmitted from the past. The tradition of all the dead generations weighs like a nightmare on the brain of the living.􍊍

The statement in this context appears to mean that a person will react to current events even to the degree they "make history" (a relative term) but within limitations dictated by historical parameters beyond his reach. These are usually traditions, cultures, social history and/or family. At a critical point and time, actions and events might create undo pressures and expectations; or the period might be the final stage to reaching the tipping point or critical mass that precipitates a historical response.  


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Steven Valdivia


Origins of gangs; causes of gangs; how a community evolves to violence and/or peace; new and workable solutions to gangs, riots and forms of community violence; psycho-social aspects of gang activity. Connection of gangs to riots and other community violence


First gang czar in Los Angeles City and County - 1973-1995; National trainer, lecturer and educator for Dept of Justice and as consultant; invented Target Area Strategy (multi-agency interdisciplinary strategy) still used today; developed new paradigm based on continuum.

Steven Valdivia is co-chair of the Peace and Non-Violence Research Group, Institute for Computing in Humanities, Arts and Social Science (I-CHASS), National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. His book: “Forces Gangs to Riots. Evolution to Gangs, Riots and Back to Peace" is available at Amazon, etc.

Author, "Forces...Gangs to Riots...Evolution to Gangs, Riots and Back to Peace". Also articles in LA Times; Newsweek, Christian Science Monitor, guest on ABC Nightline...many others

Book Series: "Forces, Gangs to Riots..." Volumes 1,2 and 3. Certified expert NPG. Member of Sociology and Cyber-Infrastructure to Study and Combat Violence (HCSCV) Group, UIUC; numerous credentials in law enforcement and gang training.

Awards and Honors
Honored: US Congressional Record...too many to list including City and County of Los Angeles; LA County Sheriff, LAPD, LA Unified Schools, US Congress, State of California...

Past/Present Clients
National Assoc of District Attorneys; Law Enforcement Admin Assistance; LA County Interagency Gang Task Force...many others

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