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Sociology/Whole humanity - Dr. Cristina Carpinelli


I will be giving talk about conflict prevention and resolution with regard to whole humanity, where religion can play a constructive role.

I have the following two specific questions where your feedback and assistance will be greatly appreciated.

Question 1: Is affinity, feeling and action towards the same group as yourself and also towards whole humanity a dichotomy or consistent with each other?

Question 2: What factors to consider and apply, when periodically such as during conflict prevention and resolution, you wish to exude affinity, feeling and action towards whole humanity? (as oppose to protecting your own group regardless of circumstances)

For reference:

Point 1) In religious scripture and tradition those outside of the respective religion are explicitly defined or implicitly omitted. These classifications of those inside and outside of a religion “may” have an influence on factors such as personal identity and social cognition, that provide reasoning for group phenomena such as favouritism, influence, polarisation and homogeneity.  

Point 2) I have performed a survey of those belonging to Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism with regard to golden rule (e.g. treat others as you want them to treat you”. All respondents stated it refers to whole humanity, and in terms of extent it contributes or has the potential to contribute to affinity, unity and peace, most respondents stated “very great”.

Any other comments will be much appreciated. Many thanks

Affinity, feeling and action serve as a source of support and solidarity for people, which tend to organize themselves into a group  of human being (e.g.: social primary or secondary groups or affinity groups), that is to say in a place, where fears and concerns can be voiced and worked through…It is important that members feel comfortable with other members of the group so as to generate familiarity, trust and agreement. A group cannot hope to reach consensus decisions without having some base of agreement. Once a base is agreed upon, details of specific issues and actions can be worked out. Some groups will ask members to share commitment to certain values like religious faith, feminism, political ideology, etc.
I’m sure the group (social, religious, family one, etc.) has a strong influence on factors such as personal identity and social cognition, that provide reasoning for group phenomena such as favouritism, influence, polarisation and homogeneity. However, as the social dimension is extremely complex, factors such as affinity, feeling, action on the one hand act as the glue of the group (cohesion factors), on the other hand can develop high tension and conflict societies, as the whole of humanity is organized in multiple layers of extremely heterogeneous groups. If feelings, affinities and actions are very strong and intense, so they can produce strong attraction or strong rejection. The fundamentalist groups are an example. Societies such as “powder kegs” exist where there are groups based on strong identity (of whatever kind). The “absolute” identity is an inclusive or exclusive factor (there are no half measures: either with me or against me). It is a source of security and stability, but it has its dark side: those who do not identify themselves in it are outsiders, enemies to fight. Those who are inside the “affinity group” and disagree on something are considered traitors, thus expelled from the group or condemned to a worse fate. But, thank God, the large part  (the majority) of social groups does not live by radical and maximalist feelings. It may happen that in affinity groups can coexist feelings or actions are not always consistent with each other, but that do not create disharmony or breakages inside the group, and do not pose a threat outside. In essence, my answer cannot be one-way.

In theory, all mankind appreciates values such as peace, justice, democracy, etc. In practice, on the contrary, we live in societies which often refer to absolute truths, where cultural relativism has little room…. We have had  evidence also as developed and democratic countries have made serious damage around the world with their policy of “exporting democracy”. Personally, I think that the statement of factors such as secularism (understood as separation of church and state), cultural relativism, ecumenism and commons would make a great aid to a world increasingly peaceful ..... Beautiful values , but too general, such as peace, unity, or beautiful phrases as “love thy neighbor as thyself” are not of much help....... I mentioned the factors that are currently for me the most important for the good of humanity (of course are not the only).
Hi, Cristina.


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dr. Cristina Carpinelli


Cristina Carpinelli is a sociologist/politologist. She deals with research works, from economic and social point of view, concerning Central-Est Europe (Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland), South-Est Europe (Bulgaria, Romania, balkan Countries), Russia and all Former Soviet Union Countries. She has also become an expert on social welfare and gender and family politics in Countries mentioned above. She can't answer the questions relative to other geo-economic and political areas or about other questions outside her competence/knowledge. She lives and works in Milan (Italy).


Cristina Carpinelli wrote many articles and essays on the Ussr and on the transition of the Fsu from a planned economic system to a free market one. She wrote some books published by Nuovi Autori, Franco Angeli, Achab, Sedizioni, Zambon, Mimesis, Amazon.

She is a Scientific Committee Member of CeSPI (International Problems Study Center of Sesto San Giovanni - Milan ) as an expert on CEE (Central-Eastern Europe) and South-Eastern Europe (including Russia), and a monthly contributor to “noidonne” Magazine for gender and family politics in CEE (including Russia). She is part of the team experts of the U.S. Site “AllExperts” for the categories: “Sociology” and “Russia (News & Politics)”. She was part of the teaching staff for the training module “Objective Russia” (professional diploma for economic operators - ISPI school; module suspended from 2015) and now She is part of the teaching staff for the training module “European Union and ethnic and national minorities” (diploma in “European Affairs” - ISPI school). She is a member of the Italian Association for History Studies on Central and Eastern Europe (AISSECO - Since May 2015) and a member of the editorial staff of Mitteleuropean Social Watch (OSME - since January 2016).

La società sovietica negli anni della perestroika (Nuovi Autori, 1991); Donne e famiglia nella Russia sovietica (F. Angeli, 1998); Donne e povertà nella Russia di El’cin: l'era della transizione liberale (Franco Angeli, 2004); “Identities in Transition: Fsu Countries after the Collapse of Real Socialism” (CeSPI, 2004); La Russia a pezzi (Achab, 2008); “L’allargamento dell’Europa ai paesi dell’Est” (CeSPI, 2008), paper presented at the Conference “Quo vadis, Europe?”, organized by Municipality of Sesto San Giovanni - Milan, November 18, 2011; “Paesi Baltici tra integrazione europea e ‘apartheid’” in: Ripensare l’Europa dalle fondamenta, Mimesis, 2014 (Conference proceedings “Ripensare l’Europa dalle fondamenta”. Conference was organized by CeSPI and Municipality of Sesto San Giovanni - Milan; November 30, 2013); “Ucraina: un paese spaccato in due” (CeSPI, 2014), paper prepared for the Conference “Crisi Ucraina: quali possibili chiavi di lettura?” (May 16, 2014) organized by the Municipality of Sesto San Giovanni (Milan) and by CeSPI; “Nato, Ucraina, Russia” (CeSPI, 2014); L’Unione Europea e le minoranze etniche: Case Studies: Ungheria, Romania e Paesi Baltici, co-author Massimo Congiu (CreateSpace - an Company, May 18, 2016). Coming soon: Russia as told through the history of its mass media.

Cristina Carpinelli graduated during the academic year 1983/84 with the thesis "Alcuni aspetti del processo di invecchiamento della popolazione in Unione Sovietica: demografia, previdenza sociale, occupazione e salute" (Some aspects of the ageing process of the population in the Soviet Union: demography, social security, jobs and health) - State University of Milan, Faculty of Political Sciences (Statistics Department). The thesis of degree was elaborated in the Ussr, at the State University Lomonosov of Moscow.

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