Sociology/Laboral life


Why do you think that most people have to work 40 or more hours per week instead 4 hours for example ?

Dear Hernan
as you know the working time is established by specific national and decentralized labour contracts - in every country. I rule it out from my speech the undeclared work, which unfortunately is a great endemic plague in the world.
The establishment of working time to 40 hours per week comes from the productive need born in the last century (the twentieth century), when industrialization imposed a production cycle (often based on work shifts or on the assembly line), which mainly used physical strength and manual labor of the worker (taylorist/fordist model).
This management style is still the dominant one. However, with the development of industrial techniques and technologies the manual work becomes more and more obsolete. You require the knowledge and expertise of the work (not just IT) and the ideal-typical model of the present-day worker is no longer the manual worker. The use of a flexible, dynamic and skilled worker does not respond to the old type of worker immobilized for 40 hours in the workplace. The transition from the old industrial approach to a modern and dynamic one however can create a huge army of unemployed workers. If you do not provide specific professional training courses to manual workers (that are still in the world the largest part of the workforce), they will be excluded from the labour market. For enterprises investing in training it is very expensive. That’s why many enterprises often prefer to hire unskilled workers with the classic time work module. Thus avoiding also the need to lay off company staff.
I believe, however, that with the mechanization of work will be increasingly necessary to think of new jobs and new ways of working. This unavoidable change is a delicate step that should be governed with intelligence and sensibility. You have to create a new prepared, highly specialized labour-force that can be used to a very minor time (the machines and robotics will permit it), but without abandoning to itself a working class that - as I said - is yet formed on the old production model (except for some happy world islands).


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dr. Cristina Carpinelli


Cristina Carpinelli is a sociologist/politologist. She deals with research works, from economic and social point of view, concerning Central-Est Europe (Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland), South-Est Europe (Bulgaria, Romania, balkan Countries), Russia and all Former Soviet Union Countries. She has also become an expert on social welfare and gender and family politics in Countries mentioned above. She can't answer the questions relative to other geo-economic and political areas or about other questions outside her competence/knowledge. She lives and works in Milan (Italy).


Cristina Carpinelli wrote many articles and essays on the Ussr and on the transition of the Fsu from a planned economic system to a free market one. She wrote some books published by Nuovi Autori, Franco Angeli, Achab, Sedizioni, Zambon, Mimesis, Amazon.

She is a Scientific Committee Member of CeSPI (International Problems Study Center of Sesto San Giovanni - Milan ) as an expert on CEE (Central-Eastern Europe) and South-Eastern Europe (including Russia), and a monthly contributor to “noidonne” Magazine for gender and family politics in CEE (including Russia). She is part of the team experts of the U.S. Site “AllExperts” for the categories: “Sociology” and “Russia (News & Politics)”. She was part of the teaching staff for the training module “Objective Russia” (professional diploma for economic operators - ISPI school; module suspended from 2015) and now She is part of the teaching staff for the training module “European Union and ethnic and national minorities” (diploma in “European Affairs” - ISPI school). She is a member of the Italian Association for History Studies on Central and Eastern Europe (AISSECO - Since May 2015) and a member of the editorial staff of Mitteleuropean Social Watch (OSME - since January 2016).

La società sovietica negli anni della perestroika (Nuovi Autori, 1991); Donne e famiglia nella Russia sovietica (F. Angeli, 1998); Donne e povertà nella Russia di El’cin: l'era della transizione liberale (Franco Angeli, 2004); “Identities in Transition: Fsu Countries after the Collapse of Real Socialism” (CeSPI, 2004); La Russia a pezzi (Achab, 2008); “L’allargamento dell’Europa ai paesi dell’Est” (CeSPI, 2008), paper presented at the Conference “Quo vadis, Europe?”, organized by Municipality of Sesto San Giovanni - Milan, November 18, 2011; “Paesi Baltici tra integrazione europea e ‘apartheid’” in: Ripensare l’Europa dalle fondamenta, Mimesis, 2014 (Conference proceedings “Ripensare l’Europa dalle fondamenta”. Conference was organized by CeSPI and Municipality of Sesto San Giovanni - Milan; November 30, 2013); “Ucraina: un paese spaccato in due” (CeSPI, 2014), paper prepared for the Conference “Crisi Ucraina: quali possibili chiavi di lettura?” (May 16, 2014) organized by the Municipality of Sesto San Giovanni (Milan) and by CeSPI; “Nato, Ucraina, Russia” (CeSPI, 2014); L’Unione Europea e le minoranze etniche: Case Studies: Ungheria, Romania e Paesi Baltici, co-author Massimo Congiu (CreateSpace - an Company, May 18, 2016). Coming soon: Russia as told through the history of its mass media.

Cristina Carpinelli graduated during the academic year 1983/84 with the thesis "Alcuni aspetti del processo di invecchiamento della popolazione in Unione Sovietica: demografia, previdenza sociale, occupazione e salute" (Some aspects of the ageing process of the population in the Soviet Union: demography, social security, jobs and health) - State University of Milan, Faculty of Political Sciences (Statistics Department). The thesis of degree was elaborated in the Ussr, at the State University Lomonosov of Moscow.

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