U.S. History/History Project


QUESTION: Hello Im doing a history project and I need to provide examples of presidents during 1865-1900. I tried reaserching my book and online and I couldnt find any. Can you please help me?

ANSWER: You can find a list of Presidwents here:


Lincoln was President in 1865.  McKinley was President in 1900.

- Mike

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QUESTION: I`m sorry I meant precedents the spell check corrected it as presidents.

ANSWER: Are you talking about legal court precedents?  How many do you need?

- Mike

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QUESTION: Yeah like 5

In that period, the Court was not in the moot do overturn legislation.  One of the most famouse cases of that era are the Slaughterhouse cases which limited the applicability of the newly passed 13, 14, and 15th Amendments.  You can read a summary here:


A similarly case, Plessy v. Ferguson, held that the 14th Amendment, which required equal protection of the laws, did not prevent States from segregating the races as long as they separate groups were treated equally (separate but equal).


When the Court did strike down a law it was usually against minorities.  For example, the Civil Rights Cases of 1882 struck down laws that prohibited certain forms of private discrimination.  The court held the federal government could only limit State action, not private actors:


Occasionally, the Court protected civil rights, as it did in Yick Wo v. Hopkins, where it held that unequal enforcement of a law against certain races was unconstitutional:


Another interesting case was the US v. E.C. Knight Co. where the court held that the federal government could not regulate manufacturing as it was not interstate commerce:


- Mike

U.S. History

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Michael Troy


I can answer just about any question on early American History. My specialties are the American Revolution through the Civil War/Reconstruction. I also have greater expertise in matters relating to military, political or legal history.


I have lectured at George Washington University regarding the Civil War, as well as several elementary school Civil War demonstrations. I was also a member of a Civil War reenactment group for about 10 years.


J.D. University of Michigan B.A. George Washington University

Awards and Honors
Truman Scholar

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