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1)what were the long term and short term causes of the pueblo revolt in new mexico in 1680?how did the Spanish address one of the key causes of the pueblo revolt after returning to new mexico in 1692?

2)Why did slave rebellions and the fear of slave revolts consume the attention of white colonists in the south and the north in the 1730s and the 1740s? How did white colonists and their governments respond to these actual and feared slave rebellions?

3)Explain what John Adam meant when he said that the American Revolution "was in the minds of the people, and this was affected from 1760 to 1775, in the course of fifteen years before a drop of blood was shed at Lexington." What specific groups of people were inclined to support the Revolution before its actual onset in April 1775? Why were these groups inclined to support the Revolution even before the first shots were fired at Lexington?

1. The short term consequences of the Pueblo Revolt of 1680 was that the Spanish were expelled from the area we call New Mexico today.  When they returned to reconquer the area 12 years later, they met little resistance, although they did face violent resistance in 1693 and again in 1696.  The longer term change, though, was that the Spanish did not try to force Catholicism on all the local people.  The original revolt had been sparked when Missionaries executed local religious leaders for "practicing sorcery" which really meant practicing their own local religious practices.  After the Spanish reconquered, they did not execute people for their religious practices.

2. Slave revolts were always a fear wherever slavery has been practiced.  It is especially a danger in places like the southern colonies where slaves often outnumbered free people, and where slaves were often treated very harshly.  If slaves felt they had nothing to lose, why not rise up and try to kill their oppressors?  Significant revolts were quite rare given that slaves had little chance of success.  They were kept ignorant and relatively powerless in order to prevent any rising.  The largest revolt in this era was the Stono Rebellion of 1739 in South Carolina.  They killed over 40 whites before the revolt was crushed.  More than 40 blacks were also killed, with the remaining rebellious slaves sold to much the West Indies, where conditions were much harsher and the ability to revolt much more difficult.  Slaves were often prohibited from gathering in large groups or even communicating with other plantations in order to prevent any coordination.

3. John Adams was talking about the change in attitudes.  Colonists began to think of themselves at Massachusetts men rather than British.  They were capable of self-government and handling their own affairs.  They began to believe they did not need British rule.  As a result, farmers, merchants, and most free private citizens saw British control as more of a hindrance than a benefit.

I hope this helps!
- Mike

U.S. History

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Michael Troy


I can answer just about any question on early American History. My specialties are the American Revolution through the Civil War/Reconstruction. I also have greater expertise in matters relating to military, political or legal history.


I have lectured at George Washington University regarding the Civil War, as well as several elementary school Civil War demonstrations. I was also a member of a Civil War reenactment group for about 10 years.


J.D. University of Michigan B.A. George Washington University

Awards and Honors
Truman Scholar

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