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What makes a leader more effective & why?


What makes a leader more effective & why?
CHARACTERISTICS  OF  Effective Leaders
1   They are honest. This gives them credibility, resulting in the trust and confidence of their people. Credible leaders foster greater pride in the organization, a stronger spirit of cooperation and teamwork, and more feelings of ownership and personal responsibility.
2   They do what they say they will do. They keep their promises and follow through on their commitments.
3   They make sure their actions are consistent with the wishes of the people they lead. They have a clear idea of what others value and what they can do.
4   They believe in the inherent self worth of others.
5   They admit to their mistakes. They realize that attempting to hide a mistake is damaging and erodes credibility.
6   They create a trusting and open climate.
7   They help others to be successful and to feel empowered.
8   They don't push too much. They encourage members to do more, but know when it's too much.
9   They roll up their sleeves. They show the members they aren't just the figurehead or decision maker. Members respect leaders more when they show the willingness to work alongside them.
10   They avoid phrases that cause resentment, reluctance and resistance. For instance, instead of saying you have to do something, effective leaders request or recommend that members do something.
Applies leadership  to successfully execute strategy.
Takes a long-term view and acts as a catalyst for organizational change; builds a shared vision with others; influences others to translate vision into action; creates a compelling and inspirational picture of the future
Creates a culture that fosters high standards of ethics; behaves in a fair and ethical manner towards others; demonstrates high professional standards; handles confidential and sensitive information with integrity; viewed as highly trustworthy; stands up for what is right despite potential personal consequences; demonstrates consistency between words and actions; honors commitments to others
Holds self and others accountable for rules and responsibilities; can be relied upon to ensure that projects within areas of responsibility are completed in a timely manner and within budget; sets high standards for self and others; assigns clear accountability backed by appropriate authority
Achieves strategic goals; delivers measurable results, on time and within budget; translates ideas into concrete actions; champions initiatives beyond the scope of one’s job; mobilizes resources and removes barriers for success; anticipates potential problems and develops contingency plans to overcome them; works across organizational boundaries, avoiding turf issues, and eliminating unnecessary work to achieve the desired results; concentrates on outcomes rather than activities
Develops leadership in others through coaching, mentoring, rewarding and guiding employees; develops successors and talent pools for key positions
Creates a work environment that encourages creative thinking; designs and implements new or cutting-edge programs/processes; challenges the status quo; recognizes opportunities and takes action to achieve objectives; empowers others to take risks, supports them when things go wrong and encourages them to learn from set-backs and failures
Understands process and issues inherent in change management and plans accordingly; instills confidence and trust in others; coordinates resources across departments/units; evaluates measures, project plans and deliverables for strategic alignment; acknowledges individual’s responses to change and helps them adjust; Adapts unit goals and work plans in response to internal and external forces that will impact the future effectiveness of the unit
Identifies and integrates the critical elements of a situation, making correct inferences from data; breaks complex problems into component parts and organizes the parts in a systematic way; uses innovation to develop novel solutions; can explain to others how to understand and approach complicated problems  

Applies resources, customer needs, and processes to make sound strategic and business decisions.
Formulates effective strategies consistent with the business; sees the big picture and holds a long-term perspective; determines objectives and sets priorities; anticipates potential threats or opportunities; aligns organization and department to support organizational goals; drives the execution of strategic plans and monitors results
Assesses current and future staffing needs based on organizational goals and budget realties; ensures staff are appropriately selected, developed, utilized, appraised and rewarded; readily shares resources to support organization initiatives; understands key financial indicators; uses cost-benefit thinking to set priorities; integrates technology into the workplace to improve effectiveness and efficiency; understands the impact of technological changes on the organization
Continually enhances knowledge and skills to keep abreast of industry changes, developments and emerging issues; understands what it takes to be successful in this business; has a thorough knowledge of organization’s mission, history, stakeholders and customers
Develops new insights into situations and applies innovative solutions to make organizational improvements; exercises good judgment by making sound and well-informed decisions; is proactive; distinguishes between relevant and irrelevant information to make logical decisions; effectively analyzes potential for risk and acts decisively; makes breakthrough decisions based upon a mixture of analysis, wisdom, experience and judgment; solicits input from individuals who can add significant value to the decision-making process

Cultivates effective relationships to create a culture that supports the department's and organization's goals and strategy.
Builds coalitions through give and take; gains cooperation from others to obtain information and accomplish goals; collaborates across boundaries; recognizes which battles are worth fighting for and when it is time to compromise; seeks to build internal and external partnerships to better accomplish goals; invites other points of view; anticipates the reactions and objections of others
Identifies and takes steps to prevent potential situations that could result in confrontations; manages and resolves conflicts and disagreements in a positive and constructive manner to minimize negative impacts
Recruits, develops and retains a diverse high quality workforce; leads and manages an inclusive workplace that maximizes the talents of each person to achieve sound results; respects, understands, values and seeks out individual differences to achieve the vision and mission of the organization
Inspires and guides others toward goal accomplishments; consistently develops and sustains cooperative working relationships; fosters commitment, team spirit, pride and trust; shares leadership and helps the team become interdependent by facilitating participation and group interaction
Considers and responds appropriately to the needs, feelings and capabilities of different people in different situations; is tactful, compassionate and sensitive; challenges others' ideas without getting personal; follows through on commitments to others
Makes clear and convincing presentations to individuals and groups; listens effectively and clarifies information as needed; shares relevant information and expectations openly, honestly and in a timely fashion; targets presentations to the needs and level of the audience; translates complex information into understandable, meaningful, relevant language

On-going development of skills and competencies to lead the division and its strategies.
Takes changing priorities and new developments in stride, even in the face of ambiguity; leads with a clear sense of priorities in a climate of uncertainty and change
Is open to change and new information; adapts behavior and work methods in response to new information, technology, changing conditions or unexpected obstacles; adjusts rapidly to new situations warranting attention and resolution
Recognizes own strengths and weaknesses; seeks feedback from others; extracts learning from failure
Pursues self-development and opportunities to master new knowledge; applies new knowledge; embraces new and diverse ideas; shares learning broadly


Provide team leadership
1   Create an environment oriented to trust, open communication, creative thinking, and cohesive team effort

2   Provide the team with a vision of the project objectives

3   Motivate and inspire team members

4   Lead by setting a good example (role model) - behavior consistent with words

5   Coach and help develop team members; help resolve dysfunctional behavior

    *Facilitate problem solving and collaboration
1   Strive for team consensus and win-win agreements

2   Ensure discussions and decisions lead toward closure

3   Maintain healthy group dynamics

4   Intervene when necessary to aid the group in resolving issues

5   Assure that the team members have the necessary education and training to effectively participate on the team

6   Encourage creativity, risk-taking, and constant improvement

7   Recognize and celebrate team and team member accomplishments and exceptional performance
    *Focus the team on the tasks at hand or the internal and external customer requirements
1   Coordinate with internal and external customers as necessary

2   Familiarize the team with the customer needs, specifications, design targets, the development process, design standards, techniques and tools to support task performance

3   Assure that the team addresses all relevant issues within the specifications and various standards

4   Provide necessary business information

5   Serve as meeting manager, WHEN  YOU  HAVE  A  MEETING.
6   Initiate sub-groups or sub-teams as appropriate to resolve issues and perform tasks in parallel

7   Ensure deliverables are prepared to satisfy the project requirements, cost and schedule

8   Help keep the team focused and on track
   *Coordinate team logistics
1   Work with functional managers and the team sponsor to obtain necessary resources to support the team's requirements

2   Obtain and coordinate space, furniture, equipment, and communication lines for team members

3   Establish meeting times, places and agendas

4   Coordinate the review, presentation and release of design layouts, drawings, analysis and other documentation

5   Coordinates meetings with the product committee, project manager and functional management to discuss project impediments, needed resources or issues/delays in completing the task
    *Communicate team status, task accomplishment, and direction
1   Provide status reporting of team activities against the program plan or schedule

2   Keep the project manager and product committee informed of task accomplishment, issues and status

3   Serve as a focal point to communicate and resolve interface and integration issues with other teams

4   Escalate issues which cannot be resolved by the team

5   Provide guidance to the team based on management direction


What are the objectives of performance appraisal
Objectives of Performance Appraisals

-to highlight   the  positives  of  the  performance  and  build  on it..
-to bring   out  the  negatives of  the performance  and workout  improvements.
-to highlight   the  gaps  in  skills  and  build  the  skills upwards.
-to highlight   the  gaps  in  knowledge  and  develop  it.
-to highlight   the  gaps  in  competencies  and develop  the competencies.
-helps   to set  the  required  standards  for  the  next  12  months.
-helps  to  detail   the  development  programs  for the  next  12  months
which  includes   training / development/ coaching/ mentoring etc.

Benefits of performance appraisals for the  organization.
At a macro level performance appraisals   assists organisations to match outcomes with organization objectives. It provides a system for improving organization  performance and outcomes, within the  organization's  policy framework, while maintaining good industrial relations. It generates benefits throughout organisational functions and processes.
Performance appraisal  recognises that people are the organisation’s most valuable resource, and that people are the key to an innovative, professional and service-oriented public service. Performance management emphasises the relationship between the management and development of people and an effective organisation, and provides a fair and equitable environment for improving performance.
A performance appraisal   system links achievements at all levels of the organisation with corporate, business and unit's  objectives. It provides the framework for:
• clarifying expectations, roles, responsibilities and resources required to achieve goals;
• improving communication and understanding between managers and employees in terms of work requirements, expectations, performance criteria and achievements;
• linking individual, team or unit performance with quality assurance, continuous improvement and evaluation processes of the organisation;
• facilitating, encouraging and assessing performance;
• encouraging structured feedback from employees and supervisors on performance and career planning and from the community on organisational performance;
• introducing an outcomes focused culture and increasing motivation;
• collecting data and information needed for management decision making or external review ;
• increasing the organisation’s capability to meet future requirements and to improve outcomes for the community;
• identifying performance which requires improvement; and
• recognising and acknowledging performance.

-an  opportunity  for  self  appraisal.

-an  opportunity  for  the  manager  to appraise  the  staff.

-helps  to  determine  the  strengths  of  the  employee.

-helps  to  determine  areas  for  improvements

-helps  to  determine  the  employee  training  needs.

-helps  to  determine  the  types  of  training  programs

-helps  to  determine  the  merit  rewards  for   the  employees.

-an  opportunity  to   acknowledge /  offer  recognition  for  performance

-an  opportunity  to  improve  the  employee's  capability/competencies.

-helps  to  develop  individual  development  plan.

etc  etc
Use of Performance Appraisals
1.    Promotions
2.    Confirmations
3.    Training and Development
4.    Compensation reviews
5.    Competency building
6.    Improve communication
7.    Evaluation of HR Programs
8.    Feedback & Grievances

Goals of Performance Appraisals
General Goals   Specific Goals
Developmental Use   Individual needs
Performance feedback
Transfers and Placements
Strengths and Development needs
Administrative Decisions / Uses   Salary
Retention / Termination
Lay offs
Poor Performers identification
Organizational Maintenance   HR Planning
Training Needs
Organizational Goal achievements
Goal Identification
HR Systems Evaluation
Reinforcement of organizational needs
Documentation   Validation Research
For HR Decisions
Legal Requirements


Writing Business Plans

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Leo Lingham


Questions could cover business analysis, business planning, business development, strategic planning, corporate planning, corporate development, manpower planning etc


18 years working managerial experience in business planning,
strategic planning, organization planning , human resource planning etc.


24 years in management consulting covering business planning,strategic planning, marketing planning, product planning,
sales planning etc




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