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Question
How should are go about identifying training need in an on organization

Answer
How should are go about identifying training need in an on organization
What is a training need
TRAINING  NEEDS  ARE  ELEMENTS  LIKE
-skills
-knowledge
-attitude
-aptitude
-abilities
-competencies
-behaviors
WHICH  ARE  NEEDED    TO  PERFORM  ADEQUATELY
ON  THE JOB.
A training need exists when there is a gap between what is required of a person to perform their work competently and what they actual know.
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how does it get recognised?
THIS  IS  RECOGNIZED  WHEN THE  EMPLOYEE  PERFORMS  ON THE  JOB
-poorly
-shows  lack of  behavior
-produces  inadequate  performance.
-shows poor  understand  of the  knowledge
-less skillfully
-negative  attitude  towards  the  job
-is  not  capable  of  performing  on the job
-produces  poor  results
-often unfinished  tasks
-requires  continous  coaching  on the  job
-requires  continuous  close  supervision
etc etc
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TRAINING &  DEVELOPMENT  NEEDS  ASSESSMENT

A  TRAINING  AND  DEVELOPMENT   Needs Assessment is a systematic exploration of the way things are and the way they should be. These "things" are usually associated with organizational and/or individual performance .
WHY design and conduct a Needs Assessment? We need to consider the benefits of any Human Resource Development (HRD) intervention before we just go and do it:
•   What learning will be accomplished?
•   What changes in behavior and performance are expected?
•   Will we get them?
•   What are the expected economic costs and benefits of any projected solutions?
We are often in too much of a hurry. We implement a solution, sometimes but not always the correct intervention. But we plan, very carefully and cautiously, before making most other investments in process changes and in capital and operating expenditures. We need to do the same for Human Resource Development.
The largest expense for HRD programs, by far, is attributable to the time spent by the participants in training programs, career development, and/or organization development activities.
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METHODS   OF  TRAINING  NEEDS  IDENTIFICATION


In addition  to  

-PERFORMANACE   APPRAISAL


there  are  other  methods  like

-ONE TO ONE INTERVIEWS [ in person / by telephone]
[ one to  one information  gathering]

-FOCUS  GROUPS
[meetings of individuals who share an interest in the subject
 exchange ]

-USING  QUESTIONNAIRE
[ information  gathering on paper]

-DOCUMENT  ANALYSIS
[reviewing the  existing documents/ analysing]

-OBSERVATION
[observing  / reviewing  people performing on the job]

-SEEKING  INPUTS  FROM  LINE  MANAGERS
[ assessment  of  line managers  of  their staff]

-ORGANIZATIONWIDE  SKILL  AUDIT
[ auditing  operation  process ]

-CUSTOMER  SATISFACTION  SURVEY
[ source  of  inputs ]

-ORGANIZATIONAL  METHODS
[ changes/ impact  on the  organization]

-JOB  ANALYSES  METHODS
[changes / impact  on the  individual  jobs]

-INDUSTRY  ANALYSES  METHODS
[ changes in industry characterisitics / impact on the  organization]

-BEHAVIORAL  ANALYSES
[data  collection  by  observation ]

-CRITICAL  INCIDENTS
[ reports /descriptions  of  things ]

-HUMAN  ANLYSES  METHODS
[paper  pencil  dianostic tests  of  knowledge/opinions etc]

-ADVISORY  COMMITTEE  METHODS
[ seeking advice  of  departmental  heads ]


==========================

TRIGGERS FOR  TRAINING  &  DEVELOPMENT  NEEDS


1. EXTERNAL
-anticipated  demand for  products
-anticipated  demand  for  services
-local  labor  market  situation
-customer  requirements
-changes in  government  regulations
-changes in  competitive  situation


2.INTERNAL
-plan  to  change  operational methods
-plan to  change technology
-organization  restructuring
-changes in  corporate  strategy
-changes in the  role  of  jobs.


===============================================================
A  thorough and accurate  assessment of needs must precede the
design of a  training intervention so that it  can assist  managers
in improving  in the  areas  that  need it  most.
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STEP 1.  Factors external  to the job and the culture surrounding the  job
are studied. These  include the values, practices, and heritage
that are  characteristic of  the  industry , firm, division, department,
and  work unit.

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STEP 2.  The jobs  are  studied:
-level  in organization.
-role within the  organization.
-technical features/ demands.

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STEP 3.  Forecast of  changes in:
-factors  external to the  job.
-The demands  of  the  job.
-Challenge to  and demands  that  will be  made  on the  individuals
 as they  receive  promotions, transfers, and  changes in assignments.


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Step 4. PERFORM A "GAP" ANALYSIS.
The first step is to check the actual performance of our organizations and our people against existing standards, or to set new standards. There are two parts to this:
•   Current situation: We must determine the current state of skills, knowledge, and abilities of our current and/or future employees. This analysis also should examine our organizational goals, climate, and internal and external constraints.
•   Desired or necessary situation: We must identify the desired or necessary conditions for organizational and personal success. This analysis focuses on the necessary job tasks/standards, as well as the skills, knowledge, and abilities needed to accomplish these successfully. It is important that we identify the critical tasks necessary, and not just observe our current practices. We also must distinguish our actual needs from our perceived needs, our wants.
The difference the "gap" between the current and the necessary will identify our needs, purposes, and objectives.
What are we looking for? Here are some questions to ask, to determine where HRD may be useful in providing solutions: (3)
•   Problems or deficits. Are there problems in the organization which might be solved by training or other HRD activities?
•   Impending change. Are there problems which do not currently exist but are foreseen due to changes, such as new processes and equipment, outside competition, and/or changes in staffing?
•   Opportunities. Could we gain a competitive edge by taking advantage of new technologies, training programs, consultants or suppliers?
•   Strengths. How can we take advantage of our organizational strengths, as opposed to reacting to our weaknesses? Are there opportunities to apply HRD to these areas?
•   New directions. Could we take a proactive approach, applying HRD to move our organizations to new levels of performance? For example, could team building and related activities help improve our productivity?
•   Mandated training. Are there internal or external forces dictating that training and/or organization development will take place? Are there policies or management decisions which might dictate the implementation of some program? Are there governmental mandates to which we must comply?

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Step 5. IDENTIFY PRIORITIES AND IMPORTANCE.
The first step should have produced a large list of needs for training and development, career development, organization development, and/or other interventions. Now we must examine these in view of their importance to our organizational goals, realities, and constraints. We must determine if the identified needs are real, if they are worth addressing, and specify their importance and urgency in view of our organizational needs and requirements . For example (5):
•   Cost-effectiveness: How does the cost of the problem compare to the cost of implementing a solution? In other words, we perform a cost-benefit analysis.
•   Legal mandates: Are there laws requiring a solution? (For example, safety or regulatory compliance.)
•   Executive pressure: Does top management expect a solution?
•   Population: Are many people or key people involved?
•   Customers: What influence is generated by customer specifications and expectations?
If some of our needs are of relatively low importance, we would do better to devote our energies to addressing other human performance problems with greater impact and greater value.

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Step 6. IDENTIFY CAUSES OF PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS AND/OR OPPORTUNITIES.
Now that we have prioritized and focused on critical organizational and personal needs, we will next identify specific problem areas and opportunities in our organization. We must know what our performance requirements are, if appropriate solutions are to be applied. We should ask two questions for every identified need:  
•   Are our people doing their jobs effectively?
•   Do they know how to do their jobs?
This will require detailed investigation and analysis of our people, their jobs, and our organizations -- both for the current situation and in preparation for the future.

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Step 7. IDENTIFY POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS AND GROWTH OPPORTUNITIES.
If people are doing their jobs effectively, perhaps we should leave well enough alone. ("If it ain't broke, don't fix it.") However, some training and/or other interventions might be called for if sufficient importance is attached to moving our people and their performance into new directions.
But if our people ARE NOT doing their jobs effectively:
Training may be the solution, IF there is a knowledge problem.
Organization development activities may provide solutions when the problem is not based on a lack of knowledge and is primarily associated with systematic change. These interventions might include strategic planning, organization restructuring, performance management and/or effective team building.
====================================================================================

TECHNIQUES FOR INVESTIGATING ORGANIZATIONAL AND PERSONAL NEEDS:
Use multiple methods of Needs Assessment. To get a true picture, don't rely on one method. It is important to get a complete picture from many sources and viewpoints. Don't take some manager's word for what is needed.
There are several basic Needs Assessment techniques. Use a combination of some of these, as appropriate:
•   questionnaires
•   consultation with persons in key positions, and/or with specific knowledge
•   interviews
•   work samples
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SUMMARY STEPS IN A NEEDS ANALYSIS:
•   Perform a "gap" analysis to identify the current skills, knowledge, and abilities of your people, and the organizational and personal needs for HRD activities
•   Identify your priorities and importance of possible activities
•   Identify the causes of your performance problems and/or opportunities Identify possible solutions and growth opportunities.
and finally:
•   Compare the consequences if the program is or is not implemented
•   Generate and communicate your recommendations for training and development, organization development, career development, and/or other interventions
============================================
Training Needs Analysis
and Skills Audit


Easy Seven Step plan help you devise a skills audit and determine your training needs!

STEP  1--CONDUCT  THE  SURVEY
MY  suggestsion  that employers consult with all staff on an annual basis to assess organisational training and development needs. Depending on your organisational needs, budget and time factors, the way you consult could be via a focus group, one-on-one meetings, or a questionnaire.
Focus groups and one-on-one meetings involve a carefully planned discussion with a small number of participants and are designed to obtain thoughts on specific issues, programs or products in a permissive and non-threatening environment. They provide qualitative data, giving insights into attitudes, perceptions and opinions of participants. Information is sought through open-ended questions and through observing respondents during the discussion.
Questionnaires provide quantitative information and the first level of broad data. Issues can be followed up in detail through other mechanisms such as focus groups.
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STEP  2--ANALYSE  THE  SURVEY  RESULTS
After consulting with your employees, analyse the results of the questionnaire, focus group or one-on-one meetings to determine where the staff skill gaps lie. Compare skills already obtained with skills required to do the current job and those required for future development. You may find that an employee is better suited to a different role than that which they are currently employed to do.
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STEP  3--CREATE  A  TRAINING PROFILE
Create a training profile by recording your analysis in an easily retrievable format such as a table. Depending on the size of your organisation, you may wish to record data on a sectional or divisional basis. Identify the types of courses or on-the-job experiences requested, the number and levels of people requiring training (for example, shop floor, managers), and the number of sessions needed. Distinctions made between full and part-time staff will allow session times to be scheduled in working hours.
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STEP --4  DEVISE  A  TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT  PLAN
Once all requirements have been worked out, draw up a Training and Development plan to facilitate commitment to the process. The plan should list all of the courses scheduled, the types of employees identified as ideal participants, the dates, venue and session times
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STEP 5-- PUBLICISE   THE  TRAINING  AND  DEVELOPMENT  PLAN
Publicise the training and development plan to all staff, preferably providing individuals with personalised notice. This ensures that all employees are advised of the available learning opportunities and provides equal access to developmental opportunities
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STEP  6 --IMPLEMENT   THE  TRAINING
Subject to operational needs, make sure your organisation delivers the training sessions
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STEP  7-- EVALUATE  THE  TRAINING
Evaluate the effectiveness of the training at a specific later date to ensure management and employees are satisfied with the outcomes. Performance feedback sessions may also provide a good opportunity to assess whether all recommended training sessions were delivered
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General Survey Information

The questionnaire ,SHOWN BELOW,  is divided into various parts to address a variety of organisational needs. Before you distribute the questionnaire, it is recommended that you amend the format to suit the individual job requirements by deleting any non-applicable sections.

Depending on individual preference, the questionnaire can either be completed separately by the staff member or done in conjunction with their supervisor. HR practitioners may also wish to use the questionnaire as a planning guide.

The areas covered by the questionnaire include:

1   Confirmation of the staff member’s current job description
2   A job analysis, if one is required to define the job
3   Skills needed to perform the present job
4   Skills needed to perform other roles in the organisation
5   Future career aspirations
6   The identification of prior learning obtained
7   Agreed actions for training delivery


Organisation’s Name:
Name of staff member:   
Section:   
General
1.   Are you a new employee or a long-standing employee of the company?   
2.   How long have you been in your present job?   
Confirmation of Current Duties
3.   Do you have a duty statement for your job?   Yes   No (Go to Q 6)
4.   Is your job accurately described in the duty statement?   Yes (Go to Q 14)   No
5.A   If no, what extra duties do you do that need to be added to your duty statement?
  
  
  
  
5.B   What duties are no longer part of your job and can be deleted from your duty statement?
  
  
  
  
Job Analysis
6.   Describe the tasks you regularly perform that are critical to carrying out your job effectively.
  
  
  
  
  
7.   Describe the type of equipment you are required to use (for example, keyboard, machinery, tools of trade, etc).
  
  
  
  
  
  
8.   Do you require a high degree of technical knowledge for your job?   Yes   No
9.   How do you work? Please circle   
  Alone   Part of a team   Other (specify below)
  
10.   If you work as part of a team, do you perform the same of different work to members of your team?
  
11.   To what extent does your job require you to work closely with other people, such as customers, clients or people in your own organisation? Please circle.
  Very little   Moderately   A lot
12.   How much autonomy is there in your job, ie, to what extent do you decide how to proceed with your work? Please circle.
  Very little   Moderately   A lot
13.   How much variety is there in your job, ie, to what extent do you do different things at work, using several skills and talents? Please circle.
  Very little   Moderately   A lot
Training Needs
14.   To perform your current job: What training do you still need (either on-the-job or a formal course) to perform your current job competently (eg, Excel, bookkeeping, English as a second language, etc)?
  
  
  
  
15.   To perform other jobs in the organisation: What other roles in the organisation would you be interested in doing if a vacancy became available (eg, transfer to another section, supervisor position, etc)?
  
  
  
  
16.   To perform other jobs in the organisation:  What training or experience would be required (eg, machine operation, negotiation skills, Occupational Health and Safety Awareness, etc)?
  
  
  
  
Future Development Needs
17.   What are your career aspirations?
  
  
  
  
18.   What training or development do you need to help make this happen (eg, external degree study, formal meeting procedures, leadership training, etc)?
  
  
  
  
Recognition of Prior Learning
19.   What training have you attended within the last three years? (This will help identify if any training sessions have been missed or if any refresher training is required.)
  
  
  
  
20.   What training or skills have you acquired outside your current job that may be relevant to the wider organisation?
  
  
  
  
Action Plan
  Agreed training and development to be provided over the next 12 months:
(Record the details of training courses, on-the-job experiences, buddy systems or mentor arrangements, and include the recommended dates the staff member can expect these to occur.)
  Training   Date
     
     
     
     
     
     
Signature of Staff Member   :      Date  :   
Signature of Supervisor   :      Date  :   


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THESE  ARE  ADDITIONAL  RESOURCES, YOU CAN USE
===================================

YOU  CAN  ALSO   ADD  QUESTIONS  LIKE

* What are the best aspects of the training offered here?
*What are the worst aspects of the training offered here?
*How would you improve the training offered here?
*What other feedback would you like to provide to training developers?
WHAT  ARE  THE  ORGANZATIONAL  SIGNALS  YOU HAVE  NOTICED ?:
•   increased customer complaints
•   a rise in workplace accidents
•   higher absenteeism
•   lower sales
•   increased scrap rates / reworking
•   lower performance than competitors
•   low plant utilisation
•   low staff performance
•   high staff turnover
•   poor financial indicators
•   low morale
•   problems with suppliers
•   benchmarking figures do not match or exceed competitors
•   non-productive friction between departments
    *non-productive friction between employees especially managers
===================================================
YOU  CAN  ALSO  ASK  FOR
Departmental and Occupational Needs
Learning Needs Analysis for Team/Department
Within a team or a department there are needs which may be specific to that group of people. It is also the case that those needs may not be observable or apparent to other parts of the organization. For this reason it is important that learning needs and other needs are regularly investigated and gaps addressed.
Learning needs arise within teams, groups and departments and these should be addressed on a collective basis. Team leaders or heads of departments will have responsibility for performance in their areas and may also have responsibility for training and development.
Here are some questions to help you identify team/departmental learning needs.
•   Is the provision of learning activities determined from a consideration of organizational objectives?
•   Is the provision of learning activities determined from a consideration of team / departmental objectives?
•   Does the team operate effectively as a team / department or just as a collection of individuals?
•   How might the team / department interact more effectively with its internal customers?
•   Does the team / department meet to discuss ways of operating more efficiently and effectively?
•   What skills of coaching and mentoring exist within the department to support learning?
•   How does the team / department measure its effectiveness and compare itself against other similar teams / departments either within or external to the organization?
•   Are people encouraged to develop their own skills and knowledge?
•   Do managers support and encourage the development of people for whom they have responsibility?
•   Does you organization have clear objectives which people understand and can explain?
•   Do people understand how they contribute to the objectives of the organization?
•   Is there a clear induction process for people new to the organization?
•   To what extent does training and education contribute to improved performance in the organization?
•   How much training does each member of the team / department receive each year?
•   Are effective interpersonal skills observed all the time between members of the team / department?
=======================================================
YOU  CAN  ALSO   ASK  FOR
Occupational/  Functional  Learning Needs
Occupational groups may also have needs specific to that discipline, and while professional bodies etc may provide training programmes it is unlikely that they will be sufficiently focused to match the organization's specific requirements of the occupational group.
The identification of learning needs may be conducted to address a specific cross-section of employees within an organization such as operators, administration, sales etc. This enables resources to be focussed more directly on those whose who have a specific need.
Use these questions as an prompt to identify specific areas of occupational training.
•   What current activities require specific training?
•   What future developments will require specific training?
•   Is a job analysis carried out to identify the skills and knowledge required for tasks in a particular occupation?
•   How are the skills of staff evaluated and compared to the requirements of the department?
•   Does a procedure exist for upgrading the skills of staff?
•   How often is a staff appraisal carried out and how often is there a follow up meeting?
•   Do members of staff have personal development plans which are designed to enhance their skills?
•   Is a ‘licence to practice’ required for the occupational area?
•   How do you ensure that you get the qualifying level of continuing professional (education) points?
•   Do you regularly read professional / trade journals – what are the current issues of concern and which need addressing through learning strategies?
•   Occupational standards are available for most work areas and provide the most comprehensive descriptions of work activities – are these used to inform decision making?
====================================================
YOU  CAN  ALSO  ASK   FOR
Individual Learning Needs
Below are a number of areas which need to be considered and which may provide insights into areas of learning needs:
•   Does the person have the ability to successfully achieve work objectives?
•   Does the person have the right attitude for the job?
•   What is the level of energy which is used by the person?
•   Are they lacking specific areas of experience which need to be addressed?
•   Can the person work flexibly?
•   Does the person possess the interpersonal skills to work effectively in their area?
•   Does the person have the specific knowledge required for the post?
•   Do they demonstrate suitable maturity for the post?
•   Does the person possess the people management skills for their position?
•   What is their level of productivity?
•   Does the person have the potential for promotion?
•   Does the person have the qualifications necessary for their current or future positions?
•   Does the person have the ability to work in a team?
•   Does the person have the specific technical skills required for this or a future position?
The person with most responsibility for your learning is THE  INDIVIDUAL ! Although there are general training policies and procedures you cannot expect the organization to have the same insights which you possess. If you have not already done so, you should seize the opportunity to shape your career - research suggests that those who plot their careers tend to be more successful than those who cross their fingers and hope for the best.
There are now few jobs for life and people regularly change not only their jobs but also their careers during their working life. For these reasons, you should regularly conduct a personal audit along the lines of the questions below to ensure that you are heading in a direction that you wish to follow.
•   What are your strengths and weaknesses?
•   How do you plan to address these weaknesses?
•   What changes are happening to your area of professional expertise?
•   How do you propose to keep up to date and maintain your professional standards?
•   What training have you had during the past year?
•   Do you have any choice in choosing the training courses you think you need?
•   How does your training link to organizational aims and objectives?
•   Are your skills being used effectively in the organization?
•   Do you discuss your training needs with your line manager / the training department?
•   Do you have a career development plan?
•   Do you have a personal development plan?
•   Do you have the transferable knowledge and skills to enable you to find another job if you current one ends, or you choose to change employer?
======================================================
YOU  CAN ALSO ASK  THE  STAFF/ SUPERVISORS, THEIR  SPECIFIC NEEDS
IN TRAINING

Please indicate your area of interest:

STAFF/SUPERVISORS Training Programmes - Skills Checklist Below is a list of the main training areas which are to be found in many organizations. It can be used as a menu to identify areas that may not currently be addressed.
•   Accounting
•   Appraisal Skills Training
•   Assertiveness Workshop
•   Business Communication
•   Business Ethics
•   Business Strategy
•   Business Writing Skills
•   Career Development
•   Change Management
•   Coaching & Mentoring Skills
•   Conflict Management
•   Consulting – Internal and External
•   Continuous Improvement
•   Creativity
•   Customer Service training
•   Customer Relationship Management
•   Diversity Training
•   Drug / Substance Abuse
•   Emotional Intelligence
•   Employment Law
•   Equal Opportunities Training
•   Executive Leadership
•   Financial Skills
•   Goal Setting
•   Harassment
•   Human Resource Development
•   Human Resource Management
•   Induction Programme
•   Interviewing Skills/Techniques
•   Leadership
•   Managing Conflict
•   Managing Difficult People
•   Managing Resources
•   Marketing Introduction to
•   Meeting Skills
•   Motivation
•   Negotiating Skills
•   Performance Appraisal
•   Personal Assistant Skills
•   Personal Efficiency Programme
•   Presentation Skills
•   Project Management
•   Quality Management
•   Selling Essentials
•   Small Business Management
•   Strategic Management
•   Stress Management
•   Supervisory Skills
•   Supply Chain Management
•   Report Writing
•   Team Building
•   Team Skills
•   Team Leader Skills
•   Telemarketing Skills
•   Time Management
•   Train the Trainer
•   Training Skills
•   Workplace Safety
•   Workplace Violence

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YOU  CAN ALSO ASK  THE  MANAGERS, THEIR  SPECIFIC NEEDS
IN TRAINING

Please indicate your area of interest:
Business and Management Skills
Accounting [ ]
Making Effective Presentations [ ]
Assertiveness and Delegation [ ]
Managing Change [ ]
Business Administration [ ]
Business Improvement Techniques [ ]
Project Management [ ]
Computing [ ]
Recruitment and Selection [ ]
Customer Service [ ]
Sales and Negotiation Techniques [ ]
Effective Business and Report Writing [ ]
Effective Communication [ ]
Stress Management [ ]
Finance for Non-financial Managers [ ]
Telephone Techniques [ ]
First Line Management [ ]
Team Leading [ ]
Interviewing Skills and Techniques [ ]
Time Management [ ]
Introduction to Marketing [ ]


organizational analysis, task analysis and person analysis in identifying the training needs of an organization
At the organizational level, TNA is pitched at the big picture, dealing with the overall performance and existence of the organization  as an entity within its environment or market. TNA here aims to ensure that the organization is capable of meeting its obligations and following its corporate plan. With a mindset of survival in a competitive environment, an HR strategy would typically be developed to support the corporate plan, which itself would be produced to cover a particular time period.
The occupational level of needs analysis focuses on specific disciplines within organization, namely at the department level, to identify what skills shortages can be addressed through training and which areas require the recruitment of staff from without, in order to enable the departments  to meet its obligations for the period. It would also address some of the environmental issues affecting performance, for example the equipments/software  requirements
Then there is a third level which reveals the needs of the individual. Variances between actual performance and planned performance at this level are commonly manifested as skills gaps, where the knowledge of the individual does not satisfy the requirement of the role. In order to obtain that knowledge, attendance on a formal training course might provide the desired solution.



ORGANIZATIONAL  Needs  ANALYSIS  

Within  AN  ORGANIZATION,  there are needs which may be specific to that group of people. It is also the case that those needs may not be observable or apparent to other parts of the organization. For this reason it is important that learning needs and other needs are regularly investigated and gaps addressed.
Learning needs arise within teams, groups and departments and these should be addressed on a collective basis. Team leaders or heads of departments will have responsibility for performance in their areas and may also have responsibility for training and development.
Here are some questions to help you identify team/departmental learning needs.
•   Is the provision of learning activities determined from a consideration of organizational objectives?
•   Is the provision of learning activities determined from a consideration of team / departmental objectives?
•   Does the team operate effectively as a team / department or just as a collection of individuals?
•   How might the team / department interact more effectively with its internal customers?
•   Does the team / department meet to discuss ways of operating more efficiently and effectively?
•   What skills of coaching and mentoring exist within the department to support learning?
•   How does the team / department measure its effectiveness and compare itself against other similar teams / departments either within or external to the organization?
•   Are people encouraged to develop their own skills and knowledge?
•   Do managers support and encourage the development of people for whom they have responsibility?
•   Does you organization have clear objectives which people understand and can explain?
•   Do people understand how they contribute to the objectives of the organization?
•   Is there a clear induction process for people new to the organization?
•   To what extent does training and education contribute to improved performance in the organization?
•   How much training does each member of the team / department receive each year?
•   Are effective interpersonal skills observed all the time between members of the team / department?
==================================================

Functional  Learning Needs
Occupational groups may also have needs specific to that discipline, and while professional bodies etc may provide training programmes it is unlikely that they will be sufficiently focused to match the organization's specific requirements of the occupational group.
The identification of learning needs may be conducted to address a specific cross-section of employees within an organization such as operators, administration, sales etc. This enables resources to be focussed more directly on those whose who have a specific need.
Use these questions as an prompt to identify specific areas of occupational training.
•   What current activities require specific training?
•   What future developments will require specific training?
•   Is a job analysis carried out to identify the skills and knowledge required for tasks in a particular occupation?
•   How are the skills of staff evaluated and compared to the requirements of the department?
•   Does a procedure exist for upgrading the skills of staff?
•   How often is a staff appraisal carried out and how often is there a follow up meeting?
•   Do members of staff have personal development plans which are designed to enhance their skills?
•   Is a ‘licence to practice’ required for the occupational area?
•   How do you ensure that you get the qualifying level of continuing professional (education) points?
•   Do you regularly read professional / trade journals – what are the current issues of concern and which need addressing through learning strategies?
•   Occupational standards are available for most work areas and provide the most comprehensive descriptions of work activities – are these used to inform decision making?
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@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Occupational Learning Needs   
THESE  ARE  THE  QUESTIONS  FOR  THE  SUPERVISOR/MANAGER
OF  THE  DEPARTMENT.

Use these questions as an prompt to identify specific areas of occupational training.
•   What current activities require specific training?
•   What future developments will require specific training?
•   Is a job analysis carried out to identify the skills and knowledge required for tasks in a particular occupation?
•   How are the skills of staff evaluated and compared to the requirements of the department?
•   Does a procedure exist for upgrading the skills of staff?
•   How often is a staff appraisal carried out and how often is there a follow up meeting?
•   Do members of staff have personal development plans which are designed to enhance their skills?
•   Is a ‘licence to practice’ required for the occupational area?
•   How do you ensure that you get the qualifying level of continuing professional (education) points?
•   Do you regularly read professional / trade journals – what are the current issues of concern and which need addressing through learning strategies?
•   Occupational standards are available for most work areas and provide the most comprehensive descriptions of work activities – are these used to inform decision making?

In completing a suitability training needs analysis, one needs to gather data to answer questions such as the following:
What are the symptoms of non-performance?
Where is the nonperformance among a group of employees?
What are the causes of broad or group nonperformance?
Is nonperformance due to a lack of knowledge and skills or practice?
What training will help bridge the gaps between the standards of performance and the actual performance?
What nonperformance is due to reasons other than a lack of knowledge and skills?
What solutions can be used to remedy nonperformance caused by factors other than a lack of knowledge and skills?

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Individual Learning Needs Analysis Information

THESE  ARE THE  QUESTIONS  FOR  THE  INDIVIDUAL OPERATOR
OR  EMPLOYEE.



1. Are you a new employee or a long-standing employee of the company?
2. How long have you been in your present job?

Confirmation of Current Duties
3. Do you have a duty statement for your job? Yes No
4. Is your job accurately described in the duty statement? Yes  No
5.A If no, what extra duties do you do that need to be added to your duty statement?
5.B What duties are no longer part of your job and can be deleted from your duty statement?

Job Analysis
6. Describe the tasks you regularly perform that are critical to carrying out your job effectively.
7. Describe the type of equipment you are required to use (for example, keyboard, machinery, tools of trade, etc).
8. Do you require a high degree of technical knowledge for your job? Yes No
9. How do you work? Please circle Alone Part of a team Other (specify below)
10. If you work as part of a team, do you perform the same of different work to members of your team?
11. To what extent does your job require you to work closely with other people, such as customers, clients or people in your own organisation? Please circle. Very little Moderately A lot
12. How much autonomy is there in your job, ie, to what extent do you decide how to proceed with your work? Please circle. Very little Moderately A lot
13. How much variety is there in your job, ie, to what extent do you do different things at work, using several skills and talents? Please circle. Very little Moderately A lot

Training NEEDS
14. To perform your current job: What training do you still need (either on-the-job or a formal course) to perform your current job competently ?
15. To perform other jobs in the organisation: What other roles in the organisation would you be interested in doing if a vacancy became available (eg, transfer to another section, supervisor position, etc)?
16. To perform other jobs in the organisation: What training or experience would be required (eg, machine operation, negotiation skills, Occupational Health and Safety Awareness, etc)?

Future Development Needs
17. What are your career aspirations?
18. What training or development do you need to help make this happen (eg, external degree study, formal meeting procedures, leadership training, etc)?

Recognition of Prior Learning
19. What training have you attended within the last three years? (This will help identify if any training sessions have been missed or if any refresher training is required.)
20. What training or skills have you acquired outside your current job that may be relevant to the wider organisation?
==============
•   Do you  think  you   have the ability to successfully achieve work objectives?
•   Do  you  have  the  right  knowledge / skills /  right attitude for the job?
•   What is the level of   expertise  you  have  about  the  equipments?
•   Are you  lacking specific areas of experience which need to be addressed?
•   if  so,  can you  explain--what  are  they.
•   Can  you work flexibly?
•   Do  you  possess the interpersonal skills to work effectively in their area?
•   Do  you   have the specific knowledge required for the post?
•   Do  you  feel  comfortable / matured  to  work  on  this position?
•   What is  your  level of productivity?
•   Do you  think  you  have the potential for promotion?
•   if  not,  what do  you require  for  promotion ?
•   what  specific  training in  knowledge/skills  for  the   future positions?
•   Do you   have the ability to work in a team?
•   Do you  have the specific technical skills required for this or a future position?
•   if not,  what  would  you  like  to  see  done.?
•   What are your strengths and weaknesses?
•   How do you plan to address these weaknesses?
•   What changes are happening to your area of   work?
•   How do you propose to keep up to date and maintain your knowledge / skill  standards?
•   What training have you had during the past year?
•   Do you have any choice in choosing the training courses you think you need?
•   How does your training link to  company  aims and objectives?
•   Are your skills being used effectively in the organization?
•   Do you discuss your training needs with your line manager / the training department?
•   Do you have a career development plan?
•   Do you have a personal development plan?
•   Do you have the transferable knowledge and skills to enable you to find another job if you current one ends, or you choose to change employer?

Job/Task analysis

*What are the key components of the work being performed?
*What skills and knowledge are required to perform the work?
*What are the different levels of skills and knowledge required?
*What are the measures of successful performance of the work?
*Is individual performance compared to the measures of successful performance?
*Are people performing at the benchmarked levels?
*Is the outcome of the task the issue or does the process important as well?

####################################


TRAINING &  DEVELOPMENT  NEEDS  ASSESSMENT

A  TRAINING  AND  DEVELOPMENT   Needs Assessment is a systematic exploration of the way things are and the way they should be. These "things" are usually associated with organizational and/or individual performance .
WHY design and conduct a Needs Assessment? We need to consider the benefits of any Human Resource Development (HRD) intervention before we just go and do it:
•   What learning will be accomplished?
•   What changes in behavior and performance are expected?
•   Will we get them?
•   What are the expected economic costs and benefits of any projected solutions?
We are often in too much of a hurry. We implement a solution, sometimes but not always the correct intervention. But we plan, very carefully and cautiously, before making most other investments in process changes and in capital and operating expenditures. We need to do the same for Human Resource Development.
The largest expense for HRD programs, by far, is attributable to the time spent by the participants in training programs, career development, and/or organization development activities.
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METHODS   OF  TRAINING  NEEDS  IDENTIFICATION


In addition  to  

-PERFORMANACE   APPRAISAL


there  are  other  methods  like

-ONE TO ONE INTERVIEWS [ in person / by telephone]
[ one to  one information  gathering]

-FOCUS  GROUPS
[meetings of individuals who share an interest in the subject
 exchange ]

-USING  QUESTIONNAIRE
[ information  gathering on paper]

-DOCUMENT  ANALYSIS
[reviewing the  existing documents/ analysing]

-OBSERVATION
[observing  / reviewing  people performing on the job]

-SEEKING  INPUTS  FROM  LINE  MANAGERS
[ assessment  of  line managers  of  their staff]

-ORGANIZATIONWIDE  SKILL  AUDIT
[ auditing  operation  process ]

-CUSTOMER  SATISFACTION  SURVEY
[ source  of  inputs ]

-ORGANIZATIONAL  METHODS
[ changes/ impact  on the  organization]

-JOB  ANALYSES  METHODS
[changes / impact  on the  individual  jobs]

-INDUSTRY  ANALYSES  METHODS
[ changes in industry characterisitics / impact on the  organization]

-BEHAVIORAL  ANALYSES
[data  collection  by  observation ]

-CRITICAL  INCIDENTS
[ reports /descriptions  of  things ]

-HUMAN  ANLYSES  METHODS
[paper  pencil  dianostic tests  of  knowledge/opinions etc]

-ADVISORY  COMMITTEE  METHODS
[ seeking advice  of  departmental  heads ]


==========================

TRIGGERS FOR  TRAINING  &  DEVELOPMENT  NEEDS


1. EXTERNAL
-anticipated  demand for  products
-anticipated  demand  for  services
-local  labor  market  situation
-customer  requirements
-changes in  government  regulations
-changes in  competitive  situation


2.INTERNAL
-plan  to  change  operational methods
-plan to  change technology
-organization  restructuring
-changes in  corporate  strategy
-changes in the  role  of  jobs.


===============================================================
Discuss how it is carried out in your organisation or an organisation which you are familiar with.,


A  thorough and accurate  assessment of needs must precede the
design of a  training intervention so that it  can assist  managers
in improving  in the  areas  that  need it  most.
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STEP 1.  Factors external  to the job and the culture surrounding the  job
are studied. These  include the values, practices, and heritage
that are  characteristic of  the  industry , firm, division, department,
and  work unit.

------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP 2.  The jobs  are  studied:
-level  in organization.
-role within the  organization.
-technical features/ demands.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

STEP 3.  Forecast of  changes in:
-factors  external to the  job.
-The demands  of  the  job.
-Challenge to  and demands  that  will be  made  on the  individuals
 as they  receive  promotions, transfers, and  changes in assignments.


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Step 4. PERFORM A "GAP" ANALYSIS.
The first step is to check the actual performance of our organizations and our people against existing standards, or to set new standards. There are two parts to this:
•   Current situation: We must determine the current state of skills, knowledge, and abilities of our current and/or future employees. This analysis also should examine our organizational goals, climate, and internal and external constraints.
•   Desired or necessary situation: We must identify the desired or necessary conditions for organizational and personal success. This analysis focuses on the necessary job tasks/standards, as well as the skills, knowledge, and abilities needed to accomplish these successfully. It is important that we identify the critical tasks necessary, and not just observe our current practices. We also must distinguish our actual needs from our perceived needs, our wants.
The difference the "gap" between the current and the necessary will identify our needs, purposes, and objectives.
What are we looking for? Here are some questions to ask, to determine where HRD may be useful in providing solutions: (3)
•   Problems or deficits. Are there problems in the organization which might be solved by training or other HRD activities?
•   Impending change. Are there problems which do not currently exist but are foreseen due to changes, such as new processes and equipment, outside competition, and/or changes in staffing?
•   Opportunities. Could we gain a competitive edge by taking advantage of new technologies, training programs, consultants or suppliers?
•   Strengths. How can we take advantage of our organizational strengths, as opposed to reacting to our weaknesses? Are there opportunities to apply HRD to these areas?
•   New directions. Could we take a proactive approach, applying HRD to move our organizations to new levels of performance? For example, could team building and related activities help improve our productivity?
•   Mandated training. Are there internal or external forces dictating that training and/or organization development will take place? Are there policies or management decisions which might dictate the implementation of some program? Are there governmental mandates to which we must comply?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Step 5. IDENTIFY PRIORITIES AND IMPORTANCE.
The first step should have produced a large list of needs for training and development, career development, organization development, and/or other interventions. Now we must examine these in view of their importance to our organizational goals, realities, and constraints. We must determine if the identified needs are real, if they are worth addressing, and specify their importance and urgency in view of our organizational needs and requirements . For example (5):
•   Cost-effectiveness: How does the cost of the problem compare to the cost of implementing a solution? In other words, we perform a cost-benefit analysis.
•   Legal mandates: Are there laws requiring a solution? (For example, safety or regulatory compliance.)
•   Executive pressure: Does top management expect a solution?
•   Population: Are many people or key people involved?
•   Customers: What influence is generated by customer specifications and expectations?
If some of our needs are of relatively low importance, we would do better to devote our energies to addressing other human performance problems with greater impact and greater value.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Step 6. IDENTIFY CAUSES OF PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS AND/OR OPPORTUNITIES.
Now that we have prioritized and focused on critical organizational and personal needs, we will next identify specific problem areas and opportunities in our organization. We must know what our performance requirements are, if appropriate solutions are to be applied. We should ask two questions for every identified need:  
•   Are our people doing their jobs effectively?
•   Do they know how to do their jobs?
This will require detailed investigation and analysis of our people, their jobs, and our organizations -- both for the current situation and in preparation for the future.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Step 7. IDENTIFY POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS AND GROWTH OPPORTUNITIES.
If people are doing their jobs effectively, perhaps we should leave well enough alone. ("If it ain't broke, don't fix it.") However, some training and/or other interventions might be called for if sufficient importance is attached to moving our people and their performance into new directions.
But if our people ARE NOT doing their jobs effectively:
Training may be the solution, IF there is a knowledge problem.
Organization development activities may provide solutions when the problem is not based on a lack of knowledge and is primarily associated with systematic change. These interventions might include strategic planning, organization restructuring, performance management and/or effective team building.
====================================================================================

TECHNIQUES FOR INVESTIGATING ORGANIZATIONAL AND PERSONAL NEEDS:
Use multiple methods of Needs Assessment. To get a true picture, don't rely on one method. It is important to get a complete picture from many sources and viewpoints. Don't take some manager's word for what is needed.
There are several basic Needs Assessment techniques. Use a combination of some of these, as appropriate:
•   questionnaires
•   consultation with persons in key positions, and/or with specific knowledge
•   interviews
•   work samples
=======================================================================
SUMMARY STEPS IN A NEEDS ANALYSIS:
•   Perform a "gap" analysis to identify the current skills, knowledge, and abilities of your people, and the organizational and personal needs for HRD activities
•   Identify your priorities and importance of possible activities
•   Identify the causes of your performance problems and/or opportunities Identify possible solutions and growth opportunities.
and finally:
•   Compare the consequences if the program is or is not implemented
•   Generate and communicate your recommendations for training and development, organization development, career development, and/or other interventions
============================================  

Writing Business Plans

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Leo Lingham

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Questions could cover business analysis, business planning, business development, strategic planning, corporate planning, corporate development, manpower planning etc

Experience

18 years working managerial experience in business planning,
strategic planning, organization planning , human resource planning etc.

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24 years in management consulting covering business planning,strategic planning, marketing planning, product planning,
sales planning etc

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BESTBUSICON Pty Ltd--PRINCIPAL

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MASTERS IN SCIENCE

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