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1.(a) Exhibit the interpersonal boundaries for
     managerial communication.  
 (b) Discuss the significance of communication in improving quality of work life in an organization.

2.Write a detailed business report pertaining to the establishment of a factory outside the city limit. Your report should include all vital aspects to arrive at a decision to start or not to start the factory.
3.Elaborate on the relationship of behaviours with communication.

4.(a)  Describe the various gateways available to effective interpersonal communication.    
(b) Why do writing and speaking become more important as people rise in the organization? Demonstrate your ideas and a perspective in the corporate context.


I  will send  the balance  asap.

3. write a detailed business report pertaining to the establishment of a factory outside the city limit. your report should include all vital aspects to arrive at a decision to start or not to start the factory."

Locational analysis is a dynamic process where entrepreneur analyses and compares the appropriateness or otherwise of alternative sites with the aim of
selecting the best site for a given enterprise. It consists the following:
(a) Demographic Analysis: It involves study of population in the area in terms of total population (in no.), age composition, per capita income, educational level,
occupational structure etc.
(b) Trade Area Analysis: It is an analysis of the geographic area that provides continued clientele to the firm. He would also see the feasibility of accessing the trade area from alternative sites.
(c) Competitive Analysis: It helps to judge the nature, location, size and quality
of competition in a given trade area.
(d) Traffic analysis: To have a rough idea about the number of potential
customers passing by the proposed site during the working hours of the shop, the
traffic analysis aims at judging the alternative sites in terms of pedestrian and
vehicular traffic passing a site.
(e) Site economics: Alternative sites are evaluated in terms of establishment costs
and operational costs under this. Costs of establishment is basically cost incurred
for permanent physical facilities but operational costs are incurred for running
business on day to day basis, they are also called as running costs.
Two sites A and B are evaluated in terms of above mentioned two costs as follows:
Table 1: Comparative Costs of Alternative Locations
Costs Site A (Rs.) -------Site B (Rs.)
Cost of establishments:
Land and Buildings 350000------- 230000
Equipment          60000 --------60000
Transport facilities   20000 --------30000
Cost of operations:
Materials, freight
and carriage          34000 --------24000
Taxes and insurance 10000 ------7500
Labour          100000 -----70000
Water, power and fuel 10000 ----- 8000
Total          584000 -----429500
The above cost statement indicates that site B is preferable to site A keeping in
mind economic considerations only although in some respects site A has lower
costs. By applying the definition of ideal location which is the place of maximum net advantage or which gives lowest unit cost of production and distribution, site
B would be preferred.

The important considerations for selecting a suitable location are given as
a) Natural or climatic conditions.
b) Availability and nearness to the sources of raw material.
c) Transport costs-in obtaining raw material and also distribution or marketing
finished products to the ultimate users.
d) Access to market: small businesses in retail or wholesale or services should be
located within the vicinity of densely populated areas.
e) Availability of Infrastructural facilities such as developed industrial sheds or
sites, link roads, nearness to railway stations, airports or sea ports, availability
of electricity, water, public utilities, civil amenities and means of
communication are important, especially for small scale businesses.
f) Availability of skilled and non-skilled labour and technically qualified and
trained managers.
g) Banking and financial institutions are located nearby.
h) Locations with links: to develop industrial areas or business centers result in
savings and cost reductions in transport overheads, miscellaneous expenses.
i) Strategic considerations of safety and security should be given due importance.
j) Government influences: Both positive and negative incentives to motivate an
entrepreneur to choose a particular location are made available. Positive
includes cheap overhead facilities like electricity, banking transport, tax relief,
subsidies and liberalization. Negative incentives are in form of restrictions for
setting up industries in urban areas for reasons of pollution control and
decentralization of industries.
k) Residence of small business entrepreneurs want to set up nearby their


Land. The  GLASS FACTORY   needs land for buildings and associated uses, and the built space itself. Location, cost, and quality of the space matter to all firms. The  GLASS FACTORY   is  being  offered  an  attractive  term.
Labor. For this  GLASS  FACTORY  , labor is the largest operating cost, and the single most important factor to  the  firm  deciding where to locate is the cost. Also  the quality /  quantity  of   skilled labor  is plenty.
Access to Markets. GLASS  FACTORY    access the  markets by moving people and goods via transportation systems.
- Excellent transportation systems  is  available.
- Physical distance to markets  is  short.
-Telecommunications systems are also important.
Local Infrastructure. This   city has  modern and efficient physical infrastructure, including roads, bridges, airport and cargo facilities, and telecommunications.
The  local  government  maintains and improve the quality and efficiency of public infrastructure.
Materials. GLASS  FACTORY    needs   for their inputs—raw materials and the labor pool.
which  is  available   in   abundance.
Regulation. Permitting procedures and environmental regulations have an impact on the monetary cost of doing business and on the amount of time it takes to brings a product to market.
The  local  governement  offer  convenient  procedures  and  business friendly  regulations.
Taxes. Tax rates for businesses and individuals, as well as unemployment insurance and worker compensation costs, affect the cost of doing business in a given location.
The  local  governement  offer  attractive   tax  concessions on  a  long  term  basis.
Financial Incentives. Governments offer firms financial incentives to encourage growth or other public goals. Incentives are typically tax breaks for firms that locate in a specific area.
Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs channel innovative ideas into new firms, and new firms tend to locate where the founder lives. If existing residents have entrepreneurial skills, they are likely to create new businesses.
Quality of Life. All the factors that contribute to an area's quality of life, such as educational quality, crime rate, and the environment, can affect the ability of the business to attract qualified labor. Workers want to live in a stable, pleasant community, and will be attracted to jobs in regions with a high quality of life.

4.describe the various gateways available to effective interpersonal communication.
Four Steps to Effective Interpersonal Communication
If you are the sender, it’s your job to find ways to penetrate the noise that prevents clear
communication. Following these four steps in your communication will help you do so:
1. Focus your message
2. Magnify the listener’s attention
3. Penetrate barriers
4. Listen actively.
Focus Your Message
Focusing your message means planning before you speak. Think carefully about what
you want to say and how you want to say it. Decide what your goal is: to inform, to persuade,
to direct, or to do something else. Be sure you understand who your audience is so you
understand where the audience is coming from as it receives your message. Make sure your
message is specific and concise. Get to the point; don’t be diverted into side issues. Present
your message politely, and be objective—state all sides’ positions fairly before arguing your
own. (If the listener perceives that you are biased, this itself can become an important
barrier to communication.)
Magnify the Listener’s Attention
Ask yourself: Why should my listener care about what I have to say? You must create
interest—make your message relevant to the listener. If your instructor suddenly announces
that something will be on your next exam, you’re more likely to pay attention. If you
announce that what you’re about to say will save your listeners money, you’re likely to
grab their attention. Find something in your message that your listener can relate to and
make sure you highlight that.
Make it clear that your message is important. For example, if you suddenly announce
that “What I’m about to say could save your life,” before you discuss a crucial safety
issue, you’ll grab the listener’s interest. But your ideas must really be important. Simply
declaring that they are won’t do it—you must persuade the audience through the clarity
and logic of your arguments and your evidence that your message really is significant.
Again, think about your message from the audience’s perspective instead of your own.
This means knowing your audience. Deliver your message so that it naturally draws your
listener’s attention.
Penetrate Barriers
One serious barrier to clear communication is vagueness. If you say, “There was a fire
downtown last night,” you have communicated little. If you say, however, “Twenty fire
trucks from three different towns fought an inferno last night that destroyed an entire
city block, including a fireworks factory,” your concrete description has communicated a
good deal more. The listener now understands that you’re talking about a major disaster,
not a fire in a trash can. Your concrete description helps the listener create a mental picture,
or visualize the blaze.
Be as precise and concrete as you can. Would you describe the hurricane that nearly
destroyed New Orleans in 2005 as “some flooding and a lot of wind”? Don’t say, “There
are a bunch of well-armed enemy fighters in front of us.” Describe them precisely: “A
platoon-sized enemy force is in front of us armed with rocket-propelled grenades and
supported by a tank.”
Besides description, analogies can help your message penetrate communications
barriers. “Like looking for a needle in a haystack” is a cliché, but it gives a concrete idea
of how difficult the task is. Find an original way to say it: “like trying to melt a glacier
with a hair dryer”; “like trying to heat the moon.” Note that analogies work only if both
the sender and the receiver understand the analogy’s references the same way.
Ask your audience for feedback. But be sure to ask the right kinds of questions. If you
simply ask, “Did you understand me?” nine times out of 10 the listener will say, “Yes.”
Ask the kinds of questions that allow you to verify that the listener really does understand:
How many seconds can you wait after pulling the pin on a grenade
before you must throw it?
Tell me again how many stars a lieutenant general wears.
What color on the traffic signal means you must stop?
You can also ask your listener to paraphrase or repeat back to you what you just said.
Revise your message as needed to ensure that your listeners understand it. Use listener
feedback to learn what they didn’t understand and find a better, clearer, less vague way
to explain it. Watch your listeners’ body language carefully for signs of distraction, boredom,
or lack of interest, and adjust your message as needed.
Listen Actively
The difference between hearing and listening is as important as the difference between
seeing and observing. You can hear background noise but not think anything of it. Or
you can listen and realize that what sounded a minute ago like an owl sounds an awful lot
like a person trying to imitate an owl.
Hearing is automatic and involuntary. It’s sound waves bouncing off your ear drums
and causing them to vibrate and send messages to your brain. Listening is the active,
voluntary effort to receive a message, understand it, and respond to it.
So far, this discussion has touched upon your role as speaker or message sender. But
as noted before, you have a duty to be a good listener or receiver, too. As a junior officer,
you’ll find that your listening skills are constantly put to the test as you receive instruction,
correction, and orders from superiors and requests or complaints from subordinates.
The Four Types of Listening
You can become a better listener by understanding the four types of listening:
• Passive
• Competitive
• Active
• Reflective.
Passive listening is one-way communication in which you do not provide feedback and
may or may not understand the message. This kind of listening often takes place in the
classroom when many students don’t respond. Listening to the TV, radio, or a speaker
who doesn’t take questions is passive listening.
Competitive listening takes place when you’re not really listening closely—you listen
long enough to hear what you think is the necessary information (and you may or may
not be right about this), and you’re already thinking about what you’re going to say in reply.
You can hardly wait for a break in the conversation so you can jump in. This is what happens
when people talk past each other in an argument, neither one listening to what the other
is trying to say.
84 n SECTION 2
Active listening, on the other hand, is genuine two-way communication. You are
listening intently, thinking about the information to make sure you understand it, and
providing feedback to the speaker to clarify what you don’t understand.
Reflective listening goes a step further—you are not only actively listening, but are
concentrating on the speaker’s feelings, which the speaker might express through word
choice or body language. You reflect not only on what the speaker said, but on what the
speaker feels about it. A good counselor engages in this kind of listening.
Again, as the sender, it’s your job to make sure the receiver heard and understood
your message the way you meant it. As an active listener, you help the sender by thinking
about the message, providing feedback, and seeking clarification. Don’t depend on the
sender to do it all. Listen actively and confirm that you understand the message.
Active Listening
Active listening is hard work. Listening in stressful situations such as field training and
combat, for example, requires focus and using all of your senses to understand the message.
It also requires you to use effective feedback techniques, including “mirroring,” restating,
paraphrasing, and asking for clarification. In other situations, such as briefings, there are
different challenges, including mental distractions. By understanding the thought–speech
differential (that you can listen and understand much faster than a speaker can transmit),
you can more effectively absorb and analyze complex messages in situations such as a
difficult class or military planning.
Techniques for Active Listening
For active listening, you must stop thinking your own thoughts and force yourself to listen
to what the speaker is saying. These techniques will help you do so.
Clarifying. As noted above, you ask for clarification to ensure you have understood the
message. You clarify by asking specific questions:
You referred to an AO—can you explain what an AO is?
I’m not sure what “shooting an azimuth” means. Could you explain it?
You said you met with the mullah of a mosque in Afghanistan.
What exactly does a mullah do? Is he like a pastor?
Restating, paraphrasing, or “mirroring.” In these techniques, you restate, paraphrase, or
“mirror” what the speaker said, using the speaker’s or your own words, so the speaker
can verify that you have correctly understood.
Do I understand you correctly that classes will be canceled if the temperature falls below
zero degrees Fahrenheit?
Did you say that many fire team leaders carry a grenade launcher?
What I think I’m hearing you say is that you are unhappy with your choice of a major.
Acknowledging. When you acknowledge, you let the speaker know that you have understood
and heard the message and that you appreciate the speaker’s point of view. This doesn’t
mean you have to agree with the speaker or that you should say that you agree when you
don’t. Your comment can be neutral and noncommittal.
I understand that you believe all graduate assistants should speak perfect English.
I appreciate the fact that you are much farther from home than most students
at this college.
I understand that you feel you don’t fit in with the other cadets.
Summarizing. Similar to restating, this is a way of reviewing progress in a conversation.
You touch on the main ideas or conclusions, not all the individual points you discussed
along the way. You restate the main ideas very briefly and set the tone for the next subject
or conversation. This can be very useful when you are discussing several different issues.
OK, so we agreed that I’ll work your shift on Thursday evening and you’ll work mine
on Friday morning.
We’ve agreed that I will give you a one-week extension on the project and you will
e-mail it to me by 4 p.m. on the 15th.
We’ve agreed that your expressions of anger are disruptive to the unit and damaging
to your career and that you will attend an anger-management class during the next
rating period.
Framing. Use framing to test to see if the speaker is open to hearing your ideas and to draw
suggested solutions from the speaker. It allows you to present information in a neutral
way, find areas of agreement that you can focus on, and shape the conversation.
We seem to agree that proper spelling and solid substance are important in a paper.
How can we ensure that we have both?
I think we both believe that we need new equipment but that we won’t get it soon.
Do you think there are ways we can make better use of what we have?
I can see your point that PFC Smith doesn’t seem to understand the importance
of battle drills. What training do you think will help?
So you don’t like your college major—do you think this may be why you are
getting poor grades?
Be Responsive
•   Make yourself available and respond to others in a timely manner. Even if you cannot give someone an immediate response, if you redirect them or provide a trustworthy commitment to get back to them it will keep communication open. Use out-of-office tools, but stay on top of your messages and delegate a back-up if you will be unavailable for an extended period or at a crucial time.
Be Respectful
•   Understand your audience and recognize that factors such as gender, age, level of experience, time-zone differences, language, culture, religion and race can affect how people respond to what you think you are communicating. Be sensitive to the differences and acknowledge them to build the trust that opens communication. Be specific about the intent of communication and be clear on expectations. Avoid using acronyms, or if you must use them, provide a glossary in meeting materials.

Barriers of Communication
The success of an act of communication depends upon many factors like the choice of the appropriate message, understanding of the audience, preparedness of the sender and the receiver, selection of the right channel and code. But absence of barriers is the most important requirement for the success of all modes of communication. The barriers to communication include: • Wrong choice of medium
• Selective Perception
• Defensiveness
• Physical barriers
• Time and Distance
• Semantic barriers
• Difference in the Comprehension of Reality
• Socio-psychological barriers
• Difference of knowledge level
• Lack of Common Language
Wrong choice of Medium
Whatever message we may want to convey, it has to be transmitted through an appropriate medium. If someone wants to send a message instantly to a distant friend, s/he cannot use the ‘word of the mouth’ in the face to face mode to do that. It has to be either telephonic, computer-mediated e-mail or tele-fax. Similarly a manger cannot use a letter to give a report of the Annual Sales Proceeds of his/her company; a specially designed report has to submitted for this purpose. A telephonic information regarding a promotion is less important than conveying the message face to face. While dealing with a problematic employee, for example, one may resort to issuing memos but this should be the last resort as the memos pile up documentary evidence against the person and embitter his relationship with the sender. On the other hand, such disputes can be easily sorted out through the word of the mouth or through non-verbal means, may be smile and a pat.
Selective perception
Different people have different perceptions of different things. When the receiver has a different perception from that of a sender regarding the idea or information being transmitted, then communication is bound to be adversely affected. Usually a receiver filters a message in accordance with his experience, interests, needs, motivations, background and other socio-psychological characteristics and has the potential to twist a message in his/her own favour. Differences in perspectives or perceptions leads to miscommunication as it results in the loss of symbols, distortion of the symbols and the creation of new symbols (Das, 2009, p.112).
Often it so happens that the receiver finds the message threatening and thus unacceptable, and shows reluctance to receive the message. While filtering the message, the receiver therefore maintains a defensive stand and affects communication negatively.
Physical Barrier
Noise is the most notorious physical barrier which often disrupts communication. This is usually the case in places where noise from the machines or electronic gadgets hinders proper transmission of the message. Under noise we can also include all kinds of physical interferences like illegible handwriting, poor and inaudible telephonic conversation or recordings, smudged copies of duplicated typescripts, low level of light on the projector screens. In pubic speaking, the technical problem with the microphone often spoils the show.
Time and Distance
The time when a statement is made or information is conveyed can also make a difference. Often it is seen that some officers prefer to talk to the outsiders in the morning. There might be also communication gap among people working on different shifts. A person working on the day shift may not be able to understand the problem of a person on the night shift. The sitting arrangement in the places of meetings may also cause problems in getting the message across. A person sitting near the window may not be able to get a message clearly because of the external distractions. On the other hand a person sitting in the first row or the first few rows may get the right message.
Semantic Barriers
Sometimes there is breach of communication due to the different meanings that the sender and the receiver assign to a particular word or expression. In every language, different words have a lot of denotative as well as connotative meanings and when the sender and receiver of a message attach two different meanings to a word, there is communication gap. This may happen due to the differences in the social, economic and cultural backgrounds of the participants. In order to avoid such barriers the speaker or the writer should use words which have clear meanings, are familiar to the sender and the receiver and words that have positive connotations.
Difference in Comprehensive of Reality
All human beings do not perceive the reality in the same manner. Some simply believe in themselves and do not accept anything that goes against their beliefs; some may try to understand reality when it is supported by documentary evidence; some draw inferences and some others get affected by others’ opinions. In stead of being objective, we often go by subjective interpretations of reality. When our subjective interpretations dominate over the objective facts, communication is the worst victim.
Socio-Psycological Barriers
Socio-psychological barriers include the hindrances that arouse due to our attitudes, opinions, emotions, mind-set and other behavioural eccentricities. They can be enlisted as follows:
(i) Attitudes and Opinions: Our attitudes and opinions impact the way we respond to a person or a message transmitted by that person. If the person/message is favourable to us we respond positively but when it is not favourable to us, we react negatively and disrupt communication.
(ii) Emotions: A mind filled with emotions cannot be rational. Hence when we are either excited or agitated, we tend to block the transmission of a message and cause breach of communication.
(iii) Closed-mind: In order to receive and reciprocate a message, we need to have a open mind. A closed-mind is just like a closed door, obstructing the inflow of information.
(iv) Status-Consciousness: Being over-conscious of our higher or lower status, we do not express ourselves openly and thus block the proper transmission of a message.
(v) The source of communication: Our reaction to a message depends upon the source from which it has originated. We trust it if the source is reliable and do not trust it when it is not.
(vi) Inattentiveness: While listening to somebody, we often unconsciously remain inattentive when the idea being transmitted is new and our mind is not ready to accept it.
(vii) Faulty transmission: Sometimes a message is lost when it is not properly transmitted either due to a defective channel or due to the unpreparedness of the receiver.
(viii) Poor retention: Human memory has limited storage capacity and any message that is extraordinarily long or disjointed is likely to be lost. This is particularly the case with oral messages which are lost due to poor human retention.
(ix) Unsolicited Communication: Often it so happens that we receive a communication which we had never desired. In such cases, we either ignore such communications or respond to them in a lackadaisical manner
Difference in Knowledge Level
Communication gap may also occur when there is a gap in the knowledge levels of the sender and the receiver. If a speaker is speaking on Astrophysics to a group of students from humanities, s/he may not be able drive home the ideas. With no knowledge of astrophysics the students may struggle to make something out of the speech but majority of the message will go above their heads.
Difference in Language
When the frames of reference differ, it leads to communication gaps or miscommunication. This particularly happens when there is a difference of registers. A student of medicine will not understand what a professor of mechanical engineering speaks and the vice versa. Different words have different connotations in different cultures. The word ‘guru’ in the Indian culture is a spiritual guide who is supposed to guide people from darkness to light but now this word has gained currency in the western world as a synonym for an authority or expert.

Gateways to Communication
In order to enhance the effectiveness of communication, we can focus on the following aspects:
• Plan the message: Before we decide to communicate an idea/information/message, we need to plan it properly. The message should match the purpose and should be transmitted through the appropriate format.
• Use Proper language: The language used for a message should be clear, lucid and appropriate. The density of words used should match with the level of maturity of the receivers.
• Don’t be evaluative: If we listen to somebody with preconceived notions, we wont be able to receive, process and interpret the message properly.
• Give proper Orientation: All the employees should be given proper orientation regarding the objectives, policies, procedures, organization structure and work culture of an organization immediately after they are recruited. This helps in interpersonal communication as well as communication with the people at the higher and lower hierarchies.
• Be an active listener: Active listening is an art which very few people can master. Many of us confuse listening with hearing. But listening demands more attention and interest than hearing, hence very important in communication.
• Have an unbiased attitude: Any person with a biased mind will not be able to communicate properly with others. Hence it is necessary to train people to be unbiased through education, counseling and discussions to help them become good communicators. .
• Respond don't re-act: When we are dealing with a problematic situation or person, we must understand the facts properly and respond appropriately. If we react in a situation like this, our emotions and feelings take an upper hand and we end up as bad communicators. Our negative reaction to people in stressful situations will aggravate the situation and lead to total collapse of communication. We must respond mindfully rather than re-act emotionally. Though it requires self-knowledge and discipline, it allows us to be more effective in our communication.
• Promote congruence: Communication will not be effective unless and until people are willing to communicate. This willingness to communicate needs to be inculcated among people to keep them intact.
• Use the grapevine: The grapevine can be used to predict the responses of the employees regarding a particular issue. This is mainly useful for checking plans which are likely to be implemented in future. On the basis of the responses collected form people, appropriate decisions can be taken.
• Transmit the message in Installments: If too much of information is sent within too short a period of time, it will not be digested by people. SO it is wise to send the information/message in chunks. This makes the transmission of the message more effective and facilitates feedback. Information overload results in miscommunication or a complete collapse of communication.
• Provide feedback: In order to enhance the effectiveness of communication, feedback mechanism should be built into all communication networks so that necessary amendments can be made to enhance the quality of communication in future. Suggestions, clarifications, performance reports, surveys and emphatic listening are some of the feedback mechanism we use to ensure the success of communication.
• Overcome bypassing: When we receive a message, we must respond it appropriately and immediately. Bypassing it will hamper the transmission of the message.
• Maintain semantic accuracy: While using words with different connotations we must make it clear in its meaning by providing contextual clues. Semantic accuracy will improve the effectiveness of communication and will facilitate timely feedback.
• Add some eloquence: While presenting the facts, we should be able to present them in a seamless manner so that there is eloquence and the listener does not have any problem in comprehending the logical link between the facts. This in turn will positively impact communication.
• Improve the ambience: Improper ambience often mars the communication between two participants. If people fight in a meeting where a saint is giving a sermon on world peace, there is no necessity of his sermon. Similarly, if we are speaking in a crowded place with noises flowing in from all corners, we wont be able to drive anything into the minds of the audience. On the other hand, a calm atmosphere will be appropriate for such an act of communication.
• Use proper etiquette: Social etiquettes play an important role in ensuring successful communication. A person may be a master of his/her subject, but his/her lack of etiquette may mar his/her chances of a promotion. Likewise, proper telephone etiquettes are also essential for making an act of communication successful.
• Watch your language: We should opt for clear, positive language and sincerity to encourage shared understanding and earn the support of our group.

5.why do writing and speaking become møre important as people rise in the organisation? demonstrate your ideas and a perspective in the corporate context.
communication is the lifeblood of any business organization
communication is the act of transmitting information, thought, opinion or understanding of speech, signs or any viable acts from a source to a receiver with a feed back.
Life-blood is defined as the thing that keeps strong and healthy and is necessary for successful development. In other words, life-blood is considered as a vital to sustain life or a life giving force. From the above definitions, it can be deduced that communication is very important to the successful development of any Business Organization. It is an inevitable asset that organizations cannot do without.
Communication is important to business since work in business involves communication – a lot of it – because communication is a major and essential part of the work of business. By improving communication ability, you improve your chances for success. The communication short comings of employees and employers generally affect the productivity of an organization. The unavoidable importance of communication in business explains why the management of each organization should work to improve the company’s communication skills. Whatever position you have in business, your performance will be judged largely by your ability to communicate. If you perform and communicate well, you are sure of getting rewarded with much productivity. And the higher you advance, the more you will need your communication ability.
All organized effort, including the work of business, requires communication because communication enables human beings to work together. Lack of proper communication suggests a poor human relation in a working environment. Managers direct and coordinate through communication. Likewise, a well organized work force that maximizes productivity understands and utilizes effective communication.
Peter Drucker, a management consultant explained, the one basic skill is the ability to organize and express ideas in writing and speaking. As soon as you move one step from the bottom, your effectiveness depends on your ability to reach others through the spoken or the written word which is a form of communication. This ability to express oneself is perhaps the most important of all the skills a person can possess.
For every business to grow, management needs to build up a proper communication skill between herself and the work force and the work force needs to establish a good relationship among each other. Indeed communication is the life-blood of every organization and institution that seeks increase in productivity. A lot of investment needs to go into building up effective communication for it pays.

Therefore, the ability to communicate effectively both orally and in writing is an asset for the communicator. Through successful correspondence, he leads his business to success. The letters, reports, memos etc. He writes to the people demonstrate his ability or lack of it. A successful communicator is able to run the affairs of a business house. He can plan well and control the working of his organization. He has the skill to transfer his policies, decisions  objectives and job instructions to the persons working with him at all levels. So this skill is quite essential for a businessman to perform his managerial functions.
Success of any business lies in effective communication. The more effective the communication is, the better the results are. Communication is effective when it produces desired action in the reader or audience. Effective communication is essential for the survival and progress of a business concern. The ability to communicate effectively is an essential quality of a businessman. A person may be intelligent but he may not be able to get his message across to others. Ideas are generally common but the ability to convey then to others is rare. A successful communicator exercises a good effect on the minds of his readers, employees, supervisors, customers, suppliers, investors and business associates. They form a good impression of the company and the communicator. He builds the goodwill of the company he represents .Goodwill of a person or company attracts customers and wins friends. Therefore, the ability to communicate effectively both orally and in writing is an asset for the communicator. Through successful correspondence, he leads his business to success. The letters, reports, memos etc. He writes to the people demonstrate his ability or lack of it. A successful communicator is able to run the affairs of a business house. He can plan well and control the working of his organization. Hehas the skill to transfer his policies, decisions, objectives and job instructions to the persons working with him at all levels. So this skill isquite essential for a businessman to perform his managerial functions.

There is a need to make sure that every business deal is attended to promptly. Business communication encompasses not only communicating with external contacts but also with employees within the organization. This will aid the business in being well-organized and every matter whether it is a problem, an inquiry or a sales letter will be attended to properly and promptly.It does not mean that only a client’s inquiry should be responded promptly but also feedbacks or problems arising inside and outside the business as well. This is done to have a balance within the internal and external factors, especially in relation to dealing with people, whether they are employees or other external contacts.
Types of Business Communication
It is very important to know the type of business communication used in order to know the specific etiquettes and standards to use in as pecific situation. Here are some of the communications used in business.
Electronic Communication
comprises different modes of communication out from the traditional way. It includes e-mail, fax, teleconferencing and voicemail. This is used for external contacts and for people within the business organization.
Employment Communication
is a mode of communication used for employees but specifically for accepting applicants for a job.It includes application letter, follow-up communications, interview and resumes.

Nonverbal Communication
is a mode of communication that usesbody language and other means of communicating without the use of uttering words. It includes body language, expression, gestures,professional appearance, time or space.

Verbal Communication
is a mode of communication that uses theuttering of words in communicating to external contacts andemployees. It includes feedback, instructions,presentations, and telephone.

Written Communication
is a mode of communication that requireswriting in order to communicate. It includes letters, memos, proposalsand reports.

Organizational communicationbarriers

There are six crunching barriers to organizational communication:

Poor structure to the communication

A weak delivery

The use of the wrong medium to deliver the communication

A mixed message

The message is delivered to the wrong audience

A distracting environmentLet's consider each of these barriers to business communication in turn...

Poor structure to the communication
As mentioned inEssentials of Business Communication, the structure of a communication is anessential factor in how well a business communication is received by an audience.It doesn't matter whether that audience is an audience of one or one million, good structure isessential if a communication is to be 'heard' amongst the advertising and marketing 'noise' of today'sbusiness environment.

So a poor structure to your message or delivery is therefore a major barrier to effectivecommunication.
Weak delivery
It doesn't matter how important or impressive the subject of your communication is, if you deliver itwithout any 'punch' you will not get as many people to take your desired action as you would like.A weak delivery is like the very funny joke with the badly-told punchline --- it is not as funny or asmemorable as you remember the original to be.My mother is a shocker when it comes to jokes. I remember one evening she was telling me a jokeand, having successfully gotten all the way through the lead up, couldn't remember the punchline. Shefumbled and stumbled her way, but couldn't get me to laugh. I couldn't see what the joke was. So sherang the friend who told her the joke and got HER to tell me the punchline. What wasincomprehensible and unfunny suddenly became extremely funny.It's all in the delivery.It is important to not get confused between delivery and presenter. I know of one Englishbusinessman, Richard Branson, who is a shy and reticent public speaker. Yet I have seen audienceshang on his every word.
The use of the wrong medium
You have to announce a temporary hold on non-essential stationery spending in your department. Howdo you communicate this?Believe it or not, I know of one company who were seriously considering holding a major publicmeeting about this, with the department head having to get up in front of the entire department in thestaff restaurant and explain why her staff couldn't order disposable fountain pens for a while.I know of one group that were thinking of rolling out a small internal initiative via an expensive multi-media cd-rom, one to be given to each member of staff.In the first case a simple memo would have sufficed; in the second a simple announcement on theirintranet would equally have gotten the message across.
A mixed message
It is very hard for an audience -- whether an audience of 1 or 1 million -- to understand yourcommunication if you unnecessarily obfuscate.What?If you deliberately, or otherwise, confuse them. A HUGE barrier to business communication is theability of 'business-speak' to confuse and alienate its audience.It does this in two ways:1. By using terms and phrases that are 'jargon', the meaning of which are possibly recognised butprobably not fully understood2. By trying to 'save time/paper' by rolling several different communication messages into one.
The wrong audience
A distracting environment
There's nothing worse than trying to communicate your message to a group of people who cannot'hear' you.Whether their inability to 'hear' you is because of:

your voice not being strong enough

too many others talking in the room at the same time

police and ambulance sirens outside the venue

too many phone calls coming in to their office while they're trying to read your memo

interruptions while they try to read your report

incoming emails keep popping up while they are reading your web-based communication

their minds are full of other pressing matters

they are supposed to be somewhere else at that moment

their mobile phone keeps ringing, or vibrating if they've set it to 'silent' instead of switching itoff

their internet connection is slow

their internet connection keeps dropping out

there are too many interesting people to look at while they are on the bus trying, in vain, to concentrate on your report (which is what is happening to me as I sit here on a bus trying towrite this -- there is a 'domestic' happening between a married couple and it makes for fascinating, if voyueristic, watching!)

the room's airconditioning is not working and the room is hot and stuffy

the room's heating is not working and the room is cold and clammy

Why Business Communication is called, “Life blood” of an

A business Organization is a group of people associated to earn profit. Various kinds of
activities have to be performed by the people of an organization so as to earn profit. These activities
need an effective and systematic communication. Without efficient communication, one can not even
imagine to do work and hence will be unable to earn profit. Since the aim of business organization is to
earn profit, the organization will die without profit and this death is a result of the absence of
communication. This is why communication is called life blood of a business organization. We can
prove this statement in the following manner.
Different employees and officials in an organization need to communicate to each other.
This internal communication with its importance is shown in the following way:
1. Setting goals and Objectives:-
Mostly, the organizations have a variety of formal and informal objectives to accomplish.
These objectives may be financial results, product quality, market dominance, employees satisfaction,
or service to customers. So the communication enables all the persons in an organization to work
towards a common purpose.
2. Making and Implementing decision:-
In order to achieve the objective, people in a business organization collect facts and
evaluate alternatives, and they do so by reading, asking questions, talking or by plain thinking. These
thoughts are put into a written form. Once a decision has been made, it has to be implemented which
requires communication.

3. Appraisal:-
Having implemented the decision, management needs to determine whether the desired
outcome is being achieved. Statistics on such factors as cost, sales, market share, productivity and
inventory levels are compiled. This is done through computers, manual papers, memos or reports.
4. Manufacturing the products:-
Getting an idea for a new product out of someone’s head, pushing it through the production
process and finally getting the product also require communication. Designing the plan regarding
product, introducing the workers, purchasing raw material, marketing and distributing the product all
require effective communication.
5. Interaction between employer & employee:-
Employees are informed about policies and decisions of employers through circulars,
reports, notices etc. Employers also get in touch with employees through application, complaint etc.
So, communication plays a vital role in the interaction of employer and employee.
1. Hiring the employees:-
If a company wants to hire some one, it advertises the vacancy, receives applications, calls
the candidates, takes the interview and then offers job to the successful candidates. The whole process
requires communication.
2. Dealing with customers:-
Sales letters and brochures, advertisements, personal sales calls, and formal proposals are
all used to stimulate the customer’s interest. Communication also plays a part in such customer related
functions as credit checking, billing, and handling complaints and questions.
3. Negotiating with suppliers and financiers:-
To obtain necessary supplies and services, companies develop written specification that
outlines their requirement. Similarly, to arrange finance, they negotiate with lenders and fill out loan
4. Informing the investors:-
Balance sheet, income statement, and ratio analysis are used to inform the investors
regarding performance of business.
5. Interacting with Govt.:-
Government agencies make certain rules to regulate the economy. These rules are
communicated to organizations through various papers. These organizations try to fulfill, these
requirement like filling taxation form and other documents.

importance of communication
for an individual and for an organization?
“Communication is the process by which information is transmitted between
individuals and organization, so that an understanding response results”.
“Communication is the process which involves transmission and accurate replication of
ideas, ensured by feedback for the purpose of eliciting action which will accomplish organizational
(1) Helps in getting a desired job:-
Getting a desired job is not an easy task. It requires a person to be excellent, especially in
terms of communication abilities. Communication abilities can be classified into five categories that is
reading, writing, speaking, listening and observing. If a candidate is a good reader of not only text
books and reference books but also of newspapers and magazines, this would help him developing

confidence level at the time of interview. Writing skills are necessary for preparing an appropriate Bio-
data and covering letter, so that a better initial impression could be created. No doubt, conversational
skill right at the time of interview is equally countable towards success of the candidate. Listening
abilities on the other could prove to be fruitful especially when the interviewer is making a comment
or asking a question. In short we can say that the presence of above mentioned five communication
skills could give a better chance of being selected during an interview.
(2) Help in maintaining social relationships:-
We as human beings live in a cobweb of relationships rather social relationship. These
social relations compel us to act simultaneously in the capacity of father, child, husband, uncle,
neighbour, cousin, teacher, nephew and so on. All these relationships especially near one’s could be
maintained properly if we can communicate well to all these relations, that we are here to take care of
them and our services are always there to help them in case of any needs.
(3) Helps in getting on the job promotion:-
Perhaps finding a job would not be a big deal in case of if the candidate is well connected
and belongs to a well off family. But promotion on the job requires some extra skills on the part of the
candidate. Amongst those skills, communication abilities rank on the top. If a person can speak well
during interactive and presentation sessions, can reports properly, he will automatically be in the eyes
of the management and whenever a chance for promotion comes, he will be on the top of the list.
(4) Helps in solving other’s problems:-
It is commonly observed that around us there are so many people whom we like to meet,
their company is a source of enrichment for us. When we are with them we feel secured. The only
reason for such types of feelings is that such type of people are not only good listeners but they also
know it well that whenever they would speak, it would only be for the sake of encouraging, not
discouraging others, only for solving other’s problems and not for creating problems for others. Such
people are no doubt excellent communicators.
Differentiate between formal and informal language;
Formal language:
Informal Language:
(1) It is the language spoken in office,
business and other formal places.
(2) Proper and standard words are used.
(3) It consists of specific purpose words
like manager, supervisor, owner,
employer etc.
(4) It is used comparatively less than
informal language.
(5) It is used when the speaker is relaxed.
(1) It is the language spoken at home or
with friends.
(2) Improper words and slangs are used.
(3) It has all purpose words like “boss”
that stands for various personalities.
(4) It is used in daily life.
(5) It is used when speaker is in a hurry/

Communication simply means exchange of ideas & information between two persons. A
person sends a message to another person and gets the response from the receiver on the message. This
whole phenomenon can be explained as under.
1. Sender’s thoughts:-
The very first step in the process of communication is generation of thought in the sender’s
mind. These thoughts may be about a request, order, inquiry production or any other such activity.
2. Encoding / Message:-
The thought generated in the mind of sender is ambiguous and unable to be communicated
unless it is put into a receivable form. This step is known as encoding where the sender converts his
thought into a message by means of a language. For example, a sender thinks about having a job. Now,
he will put his thought on a paper. That is called job application. In his way, his thought becomes a
3. Transmission through media:-
Once a thought is converted into message, it should be transmitted to the receiver through a
suitable medium. This media might be electronic media as T.V., E-mail, radio etc. or it may be print
media like newspaper, magazines, letters or merely sound that is transmitted through the medium of
4. Noise and Barriers:-
While transmitting the information to the receiver, the sender faces lots of barriers. These
noise and barriers are explained as under:
On sender’s side:- Noise and barriers may take place during the process of encoding.
Some of them may be caused by distraction, lack of concentration, typing mistake, poor
language etc.
In the medium:- Some barriers are caused by medium such as poor transmission on
T.V. and radio misprinting in newspapers etc.
(iii) On receiver’s side:- The receiver can also create certain barriers to the receiving of
message such as poor reading ability, emotions, lack of concentration etc.
5. Decoding by Receiver:-
Having received the message form the sender, the receiver attempts to understand and
interpret the message. This process of converting the language of message into thoughts is known as
decoding. For instance, the receiver, having received job application, reads the application and
understands the message conveyed by the applicant.
6. Idea Received:-
As soon as the process of decoding is finished, the idea given by the sender is received by
the receiver. It means the thought that was generated in the mind of sender has been transmitted to the
mind of receiver. In our example, the sender wanted to inform the receiver about his thought of having
a job. Now the sender has got this idea.
7. Feed back:-
Process of communication is incomplete until the receiver responds to the sender. This
response may be negative, positive, or for further enquiry. It means when the receiver of job
application welcomes or regrets the sender, the process of communication is deemed to be complete.
This whole process can be depicted through the following diagram.
through media
Noise & Barriers
Feed Bac


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Leo Lingham


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18 years working managerial experience in business planning,
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24 years in management consulting covering business planning,strategic planning, marketing planning, product planning,
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