Writing Business Plans/MBA HRM


Kindly guide me the answers for the below questions

1.   As a Trainer, what are the steps you would undertake to make the long training session not boring to the employees?
2.   Compare and analyse the differences in the approaches in designing the training programmes for organizations from the manufacturing and service sectors.
3.   “Assessing training and development needs is one of the vital aspects in effective training and development system”. Discuss this statement and suggest steps for assessing training and development needs.
4.   Device a mechanism of evaluating training and development effectiveness to assess whether training and development investment gives commensurate return. Justify your answer.
1.   What are the eligibility criteria for maternity benefit? In foreign countries, men also get paternity benefit. Should India follow this? Discuss.
2.   Why worker’s education is important? How do workers educations improve the productivity? Discuss.  
3.   Give an account of labour welfare measures and legislations adopted in India.
4.   Describe the features of provisions on industrial health according to the Labour Welfare Act - 1942.
1.   What are the eligibility criteria for maternity benefit? In foreign countries, men also get paternity benefit. Should India follow this? Discuss.
2.   Why worker’s education is important? How do workers educations improve the productivity? Discuss.  
3.   Give an account of labour welfare measures and legislations adopted in India.
4.   Describe the features of provisions on industrial health according to the Labour Welfare Act - 1942.
1.   “Collective bargaining should move from a ‘Win- lose Strategy’ to a ‘win-win Strategy’ ” - Explain how this can be feasible. Also analyse the patterns and problems of collective bargaining in India and suggest suitable measures to overcome it.
2.   “Success of any industry in India is possible only by the effective union-management relationship” – Comment on this statement with appropriate example.  
3.   a) Write your observations about recent trends of trade unionism in an
  unorganized sector.
b) ‘Globalisation is marginalizing the role of Trade Unions in India’ –examine.
 c) Prepare a report on the influence of politics and politicians on trade unions.
4.   “Enlightened Trade Unions are highly useful both to the working class and the management’. – Examine the recent issues happened in Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC) as an example for the above statement.  
1.   Critically examine the measures provided in the Payment of Wages Act, Minimum Wages Act, Payment of Bonus Act and Equal Remuneration Act.
2.   Discuss with valid reasons why there are wage disparities between the same jobs of Central Government and State Government. Give suggestions to remove such disparities.
3.   “If selection and placement decisions are done effectively, individual performance should not vary a great deal, therefore, an incentive system is not necessary” – Discuss.
4.   Discuss the ethical and social issues connected with managerial remuneration. Write a theoretical paper justifying that compensation is a motivator and not just a satisfying factor.


I  will send  the balance  asap.

1.As a trainer, what are the steps you would undertake to make the long training session not boring the employees?.
The following are the steps to be undertaken to make the long training session not boring to the trainees/employees:
•   Give appropriate breaks to refresh
•   Use both audio-visual aids as and when necessary
•   Keep avoiding mono dialogue session; make the session highly interactive
•   Include management games like ice breakers etc. to energize the whole team
•   Introduce different learning principles like showing live industry examples and case study analysis   
1.    Tell trainees what you're going to cover. Introduce your session with a brief overview of the training subject’s main points.
2.   Tell them the information. In the main portion of the session, explain key points, go over policies, demonstrate procedures, and relate any other information trainees need to know.
3.   Tell them what you told them. Conclude with a summary of your opening overview. Use repetition to help trainees grasp and retain information.
4.   Always explain what trainees are going to see before you show a multimedia portion. This practice creates a better learning environment by guiding trainees to know what to look for and what to remember. Explaining the purpose of the multimedia ensures an effective reception for its information.
5.   Use as much hands-on training as possible. The most effective training uses all the senses to affect learning. Demonstrate and apply teaching points to create greater understanding and knowledge of the subject.
6.   Test frequently. Tests are most effective when students know they will be quizzed, because they’ll pay close attention to the material. Testing is an objective way to determine whether training achieved its goals.
7.   Involve trainees. For example, ask participants to share their experiences with the training topic. Many trainees are experienced personnel who have valuable information to contribute. All trainees will get more out of sessions by hearing about their co-workers’ experiences with the subject—and not just the trainer’s lecture points. Hearing different voices also keeps sessions varied and interesting. Structure interaction time into all your sessions.
8.   Repeat questions before answering them. This practice ensures that all participants know what the question is so they can make sense of the answer.
9.   Analyze the session as you go. Always be on the lookout for what works best. When you discover a new technique or method that clicks with the group, note it on your training materials so it can be incorporated into the training outline to be used in future sessions.
10.   Keep your session on track. Start on time and finish on time. Don't hold up class waiting for late arrivers. Run the class according to the schedule and don't get too far off course. Opening up discussion among participants may lead to some pertinent tangents, but don’t let side issues take over. Ask if there’s enough interest to pursue a separate session on that topic, but get this class back to the lesson plan.
11.   Put yourself in their shoes—or seats. Give frequent breaks, especially for half-day or all-day sessions.
12.   Solicit feedback on the training session. Critiques work best when they are written and anonymous, unless a trainee volunteers to discuss his or her thoughts in person. Trainee input is vital for making the next session—and the overall training program—more
These 12 steps are the basic foundation for a solid training session that runs efficiently and that conveys the necessary information for meeting the session’s goals. They also incorporate ways to begin improving training on the fly. In other words, you can’t go wrong by following these steps in every training session you run.
It is possible, however, to get a little more creative—and memorable—by using some of the following innovative techniques.
Make Training Memorable
Here are some softer training methods that are not necessarily essential to conveying information, but that can make receiving data or instructions a much more enjoyable experience, which will keep trainees involved and help them retain more information.
•   Make learning fun. Why? Trainees will not be enthusiastic if training sessions are dry and dull. Few employees respond to or remember complicated concepts or theories; they want to learn practical information about what they can do to get better results today. If they don’t find the message entertaining, they won’t retain it. Since variety is the spice of life, use several different training methods to engage trainees in a variety of ways. Also work to alternate the pace of each session to keep trainees’ interest level high.
•   Use humor. Humor helps keep enthusiasm at peak levels. Trainers can make a point more effectively by using humor than by drowning trainees in statistics or theories. Avoid telling jokes, however, because humor is so subjective that someone in your audience may be offended and lose track of training for the rest of the session. Personal, self-deprecating humor is the safest way to go.
•   Use attractive packaging. Use materials that are well-packaged and that communicate value. Professional packaging is a powerful tool for setting a good first impression.
•   Encourage participation. Make the session lively by engaging participants in the learning process. In fact, try to spend close to 80 percent of training time on group participation. Encourage everyone in the training session to speak freely and candidly, because learning occurs most readily when feelings are involved.
•   Build self-esteem. Employees understandably want to know what’s in it for them. They know that most training programs are designed to make money for the company, but rarely does training lift employees’ spirits or help them to become better in their own lives. Create a win-win environment by using the training program to build the participants’ self-worth and self-esteem.
Training Day Checklist
Here’s a handy last-minute checklist to make sure everything is ready for your training session:
□ Dress appropriately. Use your audience analysis to figure out what to wear. In general, match your manner of dress to that of your trainees—or go slightly more professional.
□ Arrive early. Give yourself time to check last-minute arrangements and get yourself mentally geared up for the session.
□ Check seating arrangements. Make sure the set-up is ideal for the training style you want to use and have some extra chairs for any last-minute trainees.
□ Check room temperature. Adjust it appropriately for the number of people who will be in the room and the size of the space you will all be occupying.
□ Check audiovisual hardware. Conduct one last run-through to make sure everything is still running smoothly.
□ Check electrical outlets. Make sure all your connections are safe. Don’t trail cords across walkways or overload surge protector strips.
□ Check light switches. Know which switches work which lights so you can achieve the ideal lighting for audiovisual materials and note-taking.
□ Check window-darkening equipment. Make sure blinds or shades are working properly.
□ Check arrangements. Make sure you have everything you need—including the training space for the entire time you need it.
□ Lay out classroom supplies. If you will be demonstrating tools or equipment, make sure you have everything you need.
□ Lay out course materials. Decide whether to put handouts on a table for trainees to pick up on the way in or to lay them at every seat.
These are all effective techniques for running a successful session, but what kind of person does it take to do the training? The best trainers have several qualities that make them good at what they do. Check the list below to see which qualities you already possess—and to determine which areas you could improve.
Qualities of Effective Trainers
While some of these qualities are obviously necessary for anyone in a teaching position, others may not seem as necessary, such as being patient or open-minded. All of these attributes, however, contribute to making top-notch trainers. All the best trainers are:
•   Good communicators. They speak well, express their thoughts clearly, and have an engaging presentation style.
•   Knowledgeable. They know their topic cold. They understand all the concepts and know all the details. They can answer questions thoroughly and at a level that trainees understand. If they ever can’t answer a question, they know exactly where to go to get that answer and they promise to do so as soon as possible.
•   Experienced. They know what they’re talking about. They’ve been in the field doing what they teach in training.
•   Good with people. Their personality styles may vary, but they enjoy working with people. They can engage groups of people and work with them to meet training goals.
•   Interested in learning. They recognize the value of learning in their own lives and want to help others learn. They find satisfaction in sharing with others the skills and knowledge they have acquired through hard work and persistence.
•   Patient. They understand that people learn in different ways and at different paces. They take the time to make sure each trainee understands what’s going on and leaves training sessions with the skills and knowledge he or she came to acquire.
•   Open-minded. They respect other people’s points of view and know that there are often many ways to achieve the same objectives. They don’t assume they know everything, but instead are willing to listen to and learn from trainees.
•   Creative. They bring ingenuity and their own natural curiosity to the task of training. They create an environment in their training sessions that encourages learning and inspires trainees to reach beyond what they already know to explore new ideas and methods.
•   Well-prepared. They know their material, their objectives, and their plan of presentation. They’ve checked to see that any equipment they expect to use in training is in place and operational. They’ve made sure that all supplies and supporting materials are available in the right quantities.
•   Flexible. They are able to adjust their training plan to accommodate their audience and still meet all training objectives.
•   Well-organized. Good trainers can handle several tasks at once. They know how to manage their time and their work.
Classroom or Instructor-Led Training
This is still the most popular training method because of its personal interaction and flexibility. Here are tips for getting the most out of classroom learning:
•   Outline lecture notes; don’t read them.
•   Design each part of the lecture to reinforce a training objective.
•   Always use visual aids, such as overheads, flip charts, or slides.
•   Encourage trainees to participate by giving them note-taking guides and handouts to follow during the lecture.
•   Break up the prepared presentation by inviting trainee feedback and telling stories to illustrate points.
•   Whenever possible, combine lectures with other classroom methods such as workshops or role plays to reinforce and illustrate points made in the lecture.
How to Use Handouts
Well-designed handouts serve many useful functions in a training session—but only if they are well thought out and used appropriately. Here’s how to create helpful handouts and make the most effective use of them during training:
•   Make your handouts look professional by using quality paper and a good printer or high-quality copier. If you have the budget, use full-color handouts.
•   Leave plenty of white space on handouts by keeping information simple, straightforward, and uncluttered. Give participants room to make notes.
•   Use large type that is easy to read. Don’t mix typefaces.
•   Use bullets and borders to organize information and make points easy to follow.
•   Use headings for important issues and titles.
•   Use graphics whenever possible to illustrate important points.
•   Use different color papers for handouts on different topics.
•   Number handouts for easy reference when going over them with participants.
•   Wait until the end of the session to pass out handouts that you will not discuss in class to prevent distracting participants during the session.
•   Remember: Handouts supplement a presentation, they are not the presentation itself.
Perfect PowerPoint®
PowerPoint presentations are one of the most popular and powerful training tools in use today. As with any tool, there’s a right way and a wrong to use it—and the tool’s effectiveness is directly proportional to the way it is used. Here’s how to get the most effective use of PowerPoint presentations:
•   Outline your presentation’s main points and message before creating a single slide. Story comes first, then slides.
•   Keep slides simple. Use only three to five bullets and one or two graphics per slide.
•   Keep animation to a minimum. Don’t use it just because it’s there. The software allows you to make text and images move, blink, fade in, swoop over, etc., but most of this movement is only a distraction and actually hinders audience retention of the points you’re trying to make. Trainees may pay more attention to the pretty colors or the impressive effects as words come flying in than to the information those words contain.
•   Limit the number of slides to between 20 and 30. This is generally a comfortable amount of information to give out in an hour-long presentation. Fewer slides may not cover a topic adequately and more slides may cause information overload in trainees.
•   Run your completed presentation a few times on your own computer to fix any glitches. Also run it a few times on the computer you will be using in class to make sure it works smoothly on that machine.
•   While running your presentation in the training room, figure out the best place to position yourself. Choose a spot that gives you easy access to advance slides as well as availability to audience members so that you can see whether they want your attention to ask questions or comment on a slide’s points.
•   When rehearsing your presentation, experiment with lighting in the room to make sure that slides are easily visible and that there’s enough light for trainees to take notes.
•   Begin each session by giving a brief overview of the topic and/or asking participants what they expect to learn before getting into the slide presentation. This establishes a connection between you and the audience in which you can set up an atmosphere of
interactivity before lowering the lights, which could inhibit audience members from speaking up if you haven’t set the stage for them to feel free to do so.
Training Pitfalls
In an ideal world, training will always be successful. There are ways that training can go wrong, however, and forewarned is forearmed. According to a 2001 strategic planning workshop on human capital sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences' (NIEHS) Worker Education and Training Program (WETP), there are several possible problems that can lead to either trainer burnout and/or a less-than-successful training program. Here’s what can go wrong, along with ways to make it right:
How Trainers Develop Burnout
•   They get in a rut by always training the same topic.
•   They get in a rut by always using the same training methods.
•   They are discouraged because of management’s lack of support.
•   Their hands are tied by an inadequate budget.
•   They do not receive ongoing train-the-trainer instruction.
•   They do not receive proper materials or instruction for training across language barriers or cultural differences.
•   They do not get into the field enough to customize their training beyond book learning.
How to Keep Trainers Fresh
•   Rotate trainers onto different topics.
•   Encourage using a variety of training methods.
•   Promote your program to management and get their verbal and public support; ask management to personally encourage trainers.
•   Present a realistic and ambitious budget that provides for all your training needs.
•   Encourage and provide for ongoing training and career development for trainers.
•   Assess your training audience ahead of time and provide trainers with language-appropriate materials and cross-cultural information.
•   Arrange for trainers to visit the operations in which they train on a regular basis to keep current on new methods.

Why Training Programs Fail
•   No training goals are set.
•   Training goals are not in line with company goals.
•   No accountability measurements are set up for trainers or trainees.
•   Training is regarded as a one-time event and not as an ongoing need.
•   Little or no support is given from upper management.

How to Make Your Training Program Succeed
•   Set specific training goals with a committee that includes top management.
•   Align training goals directly with the company’s strategic and financial goals.
•   Set up an accountability system to measure the effectiveness of trainers and trainees; determine whether trainers successfully communicate information and whether trainees successfully apply what they’ve learned to improve their job performance.
•   Design a training schedule that includes ongoing training, such as beginner, intermediate, and advanced as well as refresher training. Incorporate this calendar into the company’s calendar of holidays and other company events.
•   Always have a representative from upper management on your training committee to ensure that training is an integral part of your company’s  present and future plans for success.

2.Compare and analyse the differences in the approaches in designing the training programmes for organizations from the manufacturing and service sectors.

Training approach
There are three approaches to training: (1) the traditional approach, (2) the experiential approach, and (3) the performance-based approach . In the traditional approach, the training staff designs the objectives, contents, teaching techniques, assignments, lesson plans, motivation, tests, and evaluation. The focus in this model is intervention by the training staff. In the experiential approach, the trainer incorporates experiences where in the learner becomes active and influences the training process. Unlike the academic approach inherent in the traditional model, experiential training emphasizes real or simulated situations in which the trainees will eventually operate. In this model, the objectives and other elements of training are jointly determined by the trainers and trainees. Trainers primarily serve as facilitators, catalysts, or resource persons. In the performance-based approach to training, goals are measured through attainment of a given level of proficiency instead of passing grades of the trainees. Emphasis is given to acquiring specific observable skills for a task. This performance-based teacher education (PBTE) model, developed by Elam (1971), is mostly task or skill centred and is also applicable to nonformal educational organizations such as extension.

The argumen t for enhanced industrial productivity
is based on the following :
( 1) the need to enhance the standard of living
through the creation of national wealth ;
( 2) the loss of global competitiveness, and pre stige,
due to the inability to produce high quality
( 3) fear of inte lle ctual stagnation;
( 4) the loss of cre ative edge ;
( 5) the ne e d to re spond to marke t deman ds
quickly, and
( 6) the ne ed to prepare for marke t and te chnological
change s that are occurring more fre -
quently than ever.
Future workers in manufacturing will need
exceptional   performance
in the following five compe tencie s.
( 1) Man agin g re source s.
( 2) Inte rpe rsonal skills for team problem-solving.
( 3) Information science , including identification,
in te gration , assimilation , and storage an d
re trie val of information from diffe rent sources;
preparation, maintenance and interpre tation
of quantitative and qualitative re cords; the
conve rsion of information from one form to
anothe r and the communication of information
in oral and written forms.
( 4) Systems, including unde rstanding the inte rconnections
be twe en systems, identifying anomal
ie s in system p e r fo rman c e , in te gr atin g
multiple displays of data and linking symbols
with real phenomena.
( 5) Technology, including competence in selecting
and using appropriate te chnology for a job,
visualizing ope rations, and monitoring, maintaining
and trouble -shooting of complex equipment

general guide lines :
( 1) spe cific goals for the organ ization ne ed to be
cle arly de fined and translated into spe cific
goals for the training programs;
( 2) organ izations should not e xpe ct training programs
to de live r unspecified and uniden tified
organ izational goals;
( 3) training programs should consider the traine e
as an individual with social ne eds
Summary of training re search
In orde r to de ve lop a comple te unde rstanding of
worke r training, it is e ssential to review theorie s
de aling with le arning, factors affecting le arning, and
the me thods of le arning/ training that have be en
de scribed in the published lite rature . It should be
noted that, without e xception, mate rials re lated to
th e se aspe cts of training are found in behavioural,
social, and psychological lite rature . The review of this
lite rature is pertinent if the le ssons le arned e lsewhere
ar e to be applied succe ssfully in manufacturin g
se ttings.
ge neral guide line :
( 1) spe cific goals for the organ ization ne ed to be
cle arly de fined and translated into spe cific
goals for the training programs;
( 2) organ izations should not e xpe ct training programs
to de live r unspecified and uniden tified
organ izational goals;
( 3) training programs should consider t

Table 1. Sample human re sources inventory .
a. Numbe r of employee s in the job classification
b. Numbe r of employee s ne eded in the job classification
c. Age of each employe e in the job classification
d. Leve l of skill required by th e job of each employe e
e. Leve l of knowledge required by the job of each employee
f. Attitude of each employe e toward job and company
g. Leve l of job performance , quality and quan tity, of each
employe e
h. Leve l of skills and knowledge of each employee for othe r
i. Potential replacements for this job outside company
j. Potential replacements for this job within company
k. Training time required for potential replacements
l. Training time required for a novice
m. Rate of absente e ism from this job
n. Turnove r in th is job for spe cified pe riod of time
o. Job specification for the job
Table 2. Essential activities of a job.
a. The worker’ s actions.
b. The obje ctive or purpose (what ge ts done as a result of
workers actions) .
c. The machine s, tools, equipment, and work aids (MTEWA)
used to attain an obje ctive or pe rform a worker action.
d. The mate rials, products, subject matter, and se rvice s
(ne ce ssary to place the job in its general occupational area
and to contribute to an unde rstanding of the basic
knowledge required) .
e . The work performed and worker characte ristic ratings
including information on worker re lationship to data,
people , and things, worker functions, work fields ( spe cific
methods characteristic of MTEWA) , and worker characteristics
(physical demands, environmental conditions,
tempe raments, and aptitudes) .
f. Criteria for acceptable work ( job standards or measures
for acceptable work pe rformance) .
Table 3. Sample list of task dimensions .
Importance of the task
Importance of criticality of task for the job
Importance of consequence s of e rror in task performance
Time -frequency
Tasks actually pe rformed the pre vious year
Frequency of task performance on the job
Most re cent time task was pe rformed on the job
Difficulty of le arning of task
How difficult is it to learn task?
How difficult is it to learn task on job?
How much opportunity is given to learn task on job?
Difficulty of task performance
How difficult is it to perform task?
Why is it difficult to pe rform task ( task complexity, lack of
training, monotony, fatigue, e tc.) ?
Whe re should task be learned?
What level of worker proficiency is expe cted afte r training?

The ne xt key issue
in task analysis is the de ve lopment of KSA ( knowledge ,
skill, and ability) attribute s of the individuals undergoing
training, de fined as follows .
( 1) `Knowle dge (K) is the foundation upon which
abilities and skills are built. Knowle dge re fers to
an organ ized body of information usually of a
factual or procedural nature , which, if applied
makes adequate job pe rformance possible . It
should be noted that the possession of knowledge
doe s not insure that it will be used’ .
( 2) `Skill ( S) re fe rs to the capability to perform job
ope rations with e ase and precision. Most often
skills re fer to psychomotor type activitie s. The
spe cification of a skill usually implie s a pe rformance
standard that is usually required for
e ffective job ope rations’ .
( 3) `Ability (A) usually re fers to cognitive capabilitie
s ne ce ssary to pe rform a job function. Most
often abilitie s require the application of some
knowle dge base’ .
Training analysts ge ne rally recommend that task
information de ve loped from task an alyse s be supplied
to a panel of e xpe rts and knowle dge able persons, and
the y be asked to answe r que stions such as `Describe
the characte ristics of good and poor workers on name

Framework for training workers in manufacturing

Sample instructional events, conditions of learning for the five learned capabilities.

Type of learned capabilities

Instructional event
A===.Intellectual skill
B===.Cognitive strategy
E===.Motor skill

Instructional event
A===.Intellectual skill
Informing-- learner of  objective
Provide de scription
and example of the
pe rformance to be
Eliciting the performance
Ask le arne r to apply
rule or concept to
new examples
Enhancing  retention  and transfer
Provide spaced
reviews including a
varie ty of example s

Instructional event
B===.Cognitive strategy

Informing-- learner of  objective

Clarify the gene ral
nature of the
solution expected  

Eliciting the performance  

Ask for problem

Enhancing  retention  and transfer

Provide occasions
for a varie ty of
nove l problem


Instructional event

Informing-- learner of  objective

Indicate the kind of
ve rbal que stion to
be answered

Eliciting the performance
Ask for information
in paraphrase , or in
le arne r’ s own words

Enhancing  retention  and transfer

Provide ve rbal links
to additional
complexes of


Instructional event

Informing-- learner of  objective

Provide example of
the kind of action
choice aimed for

Eliciting the performance
Ask le arne r to
indicate choice s of
action in real or
simulated situations

Enhancing  retention  and transfer

Provide additional
varied situations for
se lected choice of


Instructional event
E===.Motor skill
Informing-- learner of  objective

Provide a
demonstration of the
performance to be
expe cted

Eliciting the performance
Ask for execution of
the performance

Enhancing  retention  and transfer
Learner continues
skill practice

Customer service is perhaps the most vital part of conducting business as it reflects directly on the company and how it is able to meet the needs of patrons. Implementing customer service training with employees requires a solid understanding of your customer’s needs and expectations as well as being able to meet and surpass those needs and expectations through consistent, positively reinforced training. To implement customer service training with employees, you will need to identify your customer’s needs, assess your employee’s skills, design and implement a training vehicle, and constant reevaluation of customer service delivery.
accounting&payroll POLAND
we ensure full compliance with Polish requirements
Step 1
Identify your customer’s needs. To implement effective customer service training with employees, you first need to know what your customers expect from your staff and what their needs generally are. This can be accomplished by giving each customer a comment card, setting up a ratings or feedback section on your company’s website, and/or asking customers about their experience with your company on their last visit and past visits.
You also may elect to hire a survey firm that conducts customer satisfaction surveys. For instance, Allegiance, a customer service research firm, offers a number of products for gathering information about your customers and how they interact with your employees (See Resources).
Step 2
Evaluate each employee’s skills and skill level. This can be accomplished simply by watching how an employee interacts with customers and what level of service they offer. Some employees will be natural salespersons and posses the skills to up-sell customers with little effort. Others will be better at problem solving or pre-emptive problem solving in which they are able to identify when a customer is unhappy or unsatisfied and address the situation before it becomes unmanageable.
Study your employees and identify which have the best skill sets for a particular customer service need, such as establishing a rapport and up-selling. Conduct regular meetings allowing, each employee to showcase and explain how they carry out their particular skill set.
Step 3
Design and implement a training method. This can be done just as in the example of allowing employees to individually demonstrate their skill set and how they execute it effectively. You can also record via video or audio transcription a text of the employee’s presentation or use it to compile a customer service manual.
You can also have experienced employees or supervisors or managers shadow new employees, and train them on the job. On-the-job training provides real-time and live situational awareness of how customers interact with staff and what their expectations are from said employees.
In the alternative, you can have a professional business consultant or customer service training agency write an employee handbook or customer service manual that details protocols for how and when to greet a customer, how long to wait to ask follow-up questions, how to resolve customer disputes.
Step 4
Reevaluate your employee’s customer service relations on a consistent basis. Employee evaluations should be given at least twice a year to as many as once a quarter. You want to allow the employee to give feedback on their evaluation and by the same token, allow them input on how effective they believe the customer service training to be.
You want to ensure each employee is complying with the company’s customer service protocol. For instance, WalMart employees are required to greet any customer that comes within 20 feet of an employee within seven to 10 seconds.

3.      “Assessing training and development needs is one of the vital aspects in effective training and development system”. Discuss this statement and suggest steps for assessing training and development needs.

Training Needs Analysis
and Skills Audit

Easy Seven Step plan help you devise a skills audit and determine your training needs!

MY  suggestsion  that employers consult with all staff on an annual basis to assess organisational training and development needs. Depending on your organisational needs, budget and time factors, the way you consult could be via a focus group, one-on-one meetings, or a questionnaire.
Focus groups and one-on-one meetings involve a carefully planned discussion with a small number of participants and are designed to obtain thoughts on specific issues, programs or products in a permissive and non-threatening environment. They provide qualitative data, giving insights into attitudes, perceptions and opinions of participants. Information is sought through open-ended questions and through observing respondents during the discussion.
Questionnaires provide quantitative information and the first level of broad data. Issues can be followed up in detail through other mechanisms such as focus groups.
After consulting with your employees, analyse the results of the questionnaire, focus group or one-on-one meetings to determine where the staff skill gaps lie. Compare skills already obtained with skills required to do the current job and those required for future development. You may find that an employee is better suited to a different role than that which they are currently employed to do.
Create a training profile by recording your analysis in an easily retrievable format such as a table. Depending on the size of your organisation, you may wish to record data on a sectional or divisional basis. Identify the types of courses or on-the-job experiences requested, the number and levels of people requiring training (for example, shop floor, managers), and the number of sessions needed. Distinctions made between full and part-time staff will allow session times to be scheduled in working hours.
Once all requirements have been worked out, draw up a Training and Development plan to facilitate commitment to the process. The plan should list all of the courses scheduled, the types of employees identified as ideal participants, the dates, venue and session times
Publicise the training and development plan to all staff, preferably providing individuals with personalised notice. This ensures that all employees are advised of the available learning opportunities and provides equal access to developmental opportunities
Subject to operational needs, make sure your organisation delivers the training sessions
Evaluate the effectiveness of the training at a specific later date to ensure management and employees are satisfied with the outcomes. Performance feedback sessions may also provide a good opportunity to assess whether all recommended training sessions were delivered
General Survey Information

The questionnaire ,SHOWN BELOW,  is divided into various parts to address a variety of organisational needs. Before you distribute the questionnaire, it is recommended that you amend the format to suit the individual job requirements by deleting any non-applicable sections.

Depending on individual preference, the questionnaire can either be completed separately by the staff member or done in conjunction with their supervisor. HR practitioners may also wish to use the questionnaire as a planning guide.

The areas covered by the questionnaire include:

1   Confirmation of the staff member’s current job description
2   A job analysis, if one is required to define the job
3   Skills needed to perform the present job
4   Skills needed to perform other roles in the organisation
5   Future career aspirations
6   The identification of prior learning obtained
7   Agreed actions for training delivery

Organisation’s Name:
Name of staff member:   
1.   Are you a new employee or a long-standing employee of the company?   
2.   How long have you been in your present job?   
Confirmation of Current Duties
3.   Do you have a duty statement for your job?   Yes   No (Go to Q 6)
4.   Is your job accurately described in the duty statement?   Yes (Go to Q 14)   No
5.A   If no, what extra duties do you do that need to be added to your duty statement?
5.B   What duties are no longer part of your job and can be deleted from your duty statement?
Job Analysis
6.   Describe the tasks you regularly perform that are critical to carrying out your job effectively.
7.   Describe the type of equipment you are required to use (for example, keyboard, machinery, tools of trade, etc).
8.   Do you require a high degree of technical knowledge for your job?   Yes   No
9.   How do you work? Please circle   
  Alone   Part of a team   Other (specify below)
10.   If you work as part of a team, do you perform the same of different work to members of your team?
11.   To what extent does your job require you to work closely with other people, such as customers, clients or people in your own organisation? Please circle.
  Very little   Moderately   A lot
12.   How much autonomy is there in your job, ie, to what extent do you decide how to proceed with your work? Please circle.
  Very little   Moderately   A lot
13.   How much variety is there in your job, ie, to what extent do you do different things at work, using several skills and talents? Please circle.
  Very little   Moderately   A lot
Training Needs
14.   To perform your current job: What training do you still need (either on-the-job or a formal course) to perform your current job competently (eg, Excel, bookkeeping, English as a second language, etc)?
15.   To perform other jobs in the organisation: What other roles in the organisation would you be interested in doing if a vacancy became available (eg, transfer to another section, supervisor position, etc)?
16.   To perform other jobs in the organisation:  What training or experience would be required (eg, machine operation, negotiation skills, Occupational Health and Safety Awareness, etc)?
Future Development Needs
17.   What are your career aspirations?
18.   What training or development do you need to help make this happen (eg, external degree study, formal meeting procedures, leadership training, etc)?
Recognition of Prior Learning
19.   What training have you attended within the last three years? (This will help identify if any training sessions have been missed or if any refresher training is required.)
20.   What training or skills have you acquired outside your current job that may be relevant to the wider organisation?
Action Plan
  Agreed training and development to be provided over the next 12 months:
(Record the details of training courses, on-the-job experiences, buddy systems or mentor arrangements, and include the recommended dates the staff member can expect these to occur.)
  Training   Date
Signature of Staff Member   :      Date  :   
Signature of Supervisor   :      Date  :   




* What are the best aspects of the training offered here?
*What are the worst aspects of the training offered here?
*How would you improve the training offered here?
*What other feedback would you like to provide to training developers?
•   increased customer complaints
•   a rise in workplace accidents
•   higher absenteeism
•   lower sales
•   increased scrap rates / reworking
•   lower performance than competitors
•   low plant utilisation
•   low staff performance
•   high staff turnover
•   poor financial indicators
•   low morale
•   problems with suppliers
•   benchmarking figures do not match or exceed competitors
•   non-productive friction between departments
    *non-productive friction between employees especially managers
Departmental and Occupational Needs
Learning Needs Analysis for Team/Department
Within a team or a department there are needs which may be specific to that group of people. It is also the case that those needs may not be observable or apparent to other parts of the organization. For this reason it is important that learning needs and other needs are regularly investigated and gaps addressed.
Learning needs arise within teams, groups and departments and these should be addressed on a collective basis. Team leaders or heads of departments will have responsibility for performance in their areas and may also have responsibility for training and development.
Here are some questions to help you identify team/departmental learning needs.
•   Is the provision of learning activities determined from a consideration of organizational objectives?
•   Is the provision of learning activities determined from a consideration of team / departmental objectives?
•   Does the team operate effectively as a team / department or just as a collection of individuals?
•   How might the team / department interact more effectively with its internal customers?
•   Does the team / department meet to discuss ways of operating more efficiently and effectively?
•   What skills of coaching and mentoring exist within the department to support learning?
•   How does the team / department measure its effectiveness and compare itself against other similar teams / departments either within or external to the organization?
•   Are people encouraged to develop their own skills and knowledge?
•   Do managers support and encourage the development of people for whom they have responsibility?
•   Does you organization have clear objectives which people understand and can explain?
•   Do people understand how they contribute to the objectives of the organization?
•   Is there a clear induction process for people new to the organization?
•   To what extent does training and education contribute to improved performance in the organization?
•   How much training does each member of the team / department receive each year?
•   Are effective interpersonal skills observed all the time between members of the team / department?
Occupational/  Functional  Learning Needs
Occupational groups may also have needs specific to that discipline, and while professional bodies etc may provide training programmes it is unlikely that they will be sufficiently focused to match the organization's specific requirements of the occupational group.
The identification of learning needs may be conducted to address a specific cross-section of employees within an organization such as operators, administration, sales etc. This enables resources to be focussed more directly on those whose who have a specific need.
Use these questions as an prompt to identify specific areas of occupational training.
•   What current activities require specific training?
•   What future developments will require specific training?
•   Is a job analysis carried out to identify the skills and knowledge required for tasks in a particular occupation?
•   How are the skills of staff evaluated and compared to the requirements of the department?
•   Does a procedure exist for upgrading the skills of staff?
•   How often is a staff appraisal carried out and how often is there a follow up meeting?
•   Do members of staff have personal development plans which are designed to enhance their skills?
•   Is a ‘licence to practice’ required for the occupational area?
•   How do you ensure that you get the qualifying level of continuing professional (education) points?
•   Do you regularly read professional / trade journals – what are the current issues of concern and which need addressing through learning strategies?
•   Occupational standards are available for most work areas and provide the most comprehensive descriptions of work activities – are these used to inform decision making?
Individual Learning Needs
Below are a number of areas which need to be considered and which may provide insights into areas of learning needs:
•   Does the person have the ability to successfully achieve work objectives?
•   Does the person have the right attitude for the job?
•   What is the level of energy which is used by the person?
•   Are they lacking specific areas of experience which need to be addressed?
•   Can the person work flexibly?
•   Does the person possess the interpersonal skills to work effectively in their area?
•   Does the person have the specific knowledge required for the post?
•   Do they demonstrate suitable maturity for the post?
•   Does the person possess the people management skills for their position?
•   What is their level of productivity?
•   Does the person have the potential for promotion?
•   Does the person have the qualifications necessary for their current or future positions?
•   Does the person have the ability to work in a team?
•   Does the person have the specific technical skills required for this or a future position?
The person with most responsibility for your learning is THE  INDIVIDUAL ! Although there are general training policies and procedures you cannot expect the organization to have the same insights which you possess. If you have not already done so, you should seize the opportunity to shape your career - research suggests that those who plot their careers tend to be more successful than those who cross their fingers and hope for the best.
There are now few jobs for life and people regularly change not only their jobs but also their careers during their working life. For these reasons, you should regularly conduct a personal audit along the lines of the questions below to ensure that you are heading in a direction that you wish to follow.
•   What are your strengths and weaknesses?
•   How do you plan to address these weaknesses?
•   What changes are happening to your area of professional expertise?
•   How do you propose to keep up to date and maintain your professional standards?
•   What training have you had during the past year?
•   Do you have any choice in choosing the training courses you think you need?
•   How does your training link to organizational aims and objectives?
•   Are your skills being used effectively in the organization?
•   Do you discuss your training needs with your line manager / the training department?
•   Do you have a career development plan?
•   Do you have a personal development plan?
•   Do you have the transferable knowledge and skills to enable you to find another job if you current one ends, or you choose to change employer?

Please indicate your area of interest:

STAFF/SUPERVISORS Training Programmes - Skills Checklist Below is a list of the main training areas which are to be found in many organizations. It can be used as a menu to identify areas that may not currently be addressed.
•   Accounting
•   Appraisal Skills Training
•   Assertiveness Workshop
•   Business Communication
•   Business Ethics
•   Business Strategy
•   Business Writing Skills
•   Career Development
•   Change Management
•   Coaching & Mentoring Skills
•   Conflict Management
•   Consulting – Internal and External
•   Continuous Improvement
•   Creativity
•   Customer Service training
•   Customer Relationship Management
•   Diversity Training
•   Drug / Substance Abuse
•   Emotional Intelligence
•   Employment Law
•   Equal Opportunities Training
•   Executive Leadership
•   Financial Skills
•   Goal Setting
•   Harassment
•   Human Resource Development
•   Human Resource Management
•   Induction Programme
•   Interviewing Skills/Techniques
•   Leadership
•   Managing Conflict
•   Managing Difficult People
•   Managing Resources
•   Marketing Introduction to
•   Meeting Skills
•   Motivation
•   Negotiating Skills
•   Performance Appraisal
•   Personal Assistant Skills
•   Personal Efficiency Programme
•   Presentation Skills
•   Project Management
•   Quality Management
•   Selling Essentials
•   Small Business Management
•   Strategic Management
•   Stress Management
•   Supervisory Skills
•   Supply Chain Management
•   Report Writing
•   Team Building
•   Team Skills
•   Team Leader Skills
•   Telemarketing Skills
•   Time Management
•   Train the Trainer
•   Training Skills
•   Workplace Safety
•   Workplace Violence


Please indicate your area of interest:
Business and Management Skills
Accounting [ ]
Making Effective Presentations [ ]
Assertiveness and Delegation [ ]
Managing Change [ ]
Business Administration [ ]
Business Improvement Techniques [ ]
Project Management [ ]
Computing [ ]
Recruitment and Selection [ ]
Customer Service [ ]
Sales and Negotiation Techniques [ ]
Effective Business and Report Writing [ ]
Effective Communication [ ]
Stress Management [ ]
Finance for Non-financial Managers [ ]
Telephone Techniques [ ]
First Line Management [ ]
Team Leading [ ]
Interviewing Skills and Techniques [ ]
Time Management [ ]
Introduction to Marketing [ ]


-corporate mission statement
-corporate objectives
-corporate strategy.

Once you get their departmental requirements, HRM develops
-training plans / programs/ procedures/ priorities




 Training   strategy   provides a framework for comprehensive staff development opportunities for all staff who work for the organization, to support the organization's  mission, and to enable the  organization  to achieve  the  corporate objectives  and become a true learning institution for all who work  here.
•   Staff development is relevant to all staff and the whole person
•   It is embedded in all working practice, throughout an individual's career
•   Reflection, review, feedback and opportunities for learning should form an integral part of everyone's work experience
[this  will  vary with organizations, but  as a  broad guideline include ]

1. An  assessment  of the  current situation.

2. A  statement  of  purpose, outlining  what is to be  accomplished.

3.Identification  of  the  training  needs.

4. A  statement of planning  premises -significant asssumptions,
    constraints, and parameters.

5. A  forecast statement  of   factors  that  might  help or hinder
   the  end  results.

6. Desired  behaviors  are  specified.

7.Desired   competences are identified and   specified.

8.Knowledge,  skills,  and  characteristics  desired  are specified.

9. Description of the required training/development programmes.

10. Constraints like  time, budget and  participants  attitude are identified.

11.Participants' characteristics   are  identified / listed.

12. Training  objectives  are defined / listed.

13.Training  program  contents  are outlined.
    -identifying  topic  areas to  be  covered.
   -specific  concepts  are listed

14. Selection  of  instructor(s)
     types of  specialists required.

15. Training   Teaching  materials,
      kind of  materials  required.

16. Training  Methods  required.

17.  Evaluations methods to be  used.

18. Training  resources required.

Based  on  the  TNA,  can you / your  immediate  supervisor
-identify  the  programs  [ subject/contents]
-also  the  priority [ what  is  critical  /what is urgent/what is  important]
the  departmental  heads  the  priority  , as  they see  it.
Sample Outline [for the  total corporatewide  program]

1.Introduction [ purpose of this  program]
2. Scope of the Training Plan
3 .Organizational Entities

4.Responsibility/ management ownership of  the program.
   [mention  T&D, department management etc]

5. Training/development Objectives

6. Training / development Policy

7. Corporate / Organizational Goals Supported
[  impact  on the  business]

8. Training  /  development   Benefits

9. Strengths and Areas  of  improvements  of the  Organization
 [avoid  using  term  WEAKNESSES]
10. How Training Needs Are Identified, Verified, and Prioritized

11. Training Needs To Be Addressed
    [  knowledge / skills etc]

12. Course  /  by Job Category

COURSES...............JOB CATEGORY>>>>sales !  PRORAMMING/customer service etc etc
   V V  V
time management
supervisory skills development
etc etc



13. Course Descriptions
     [ just  2/3  lines  for  each  selected ones]

14. Planned Course Development/Acquisition Strategy

15. Estimated Development and Acquisition Costs

16. Course Quality Standards

17. Planned Delivery Schedule

18.  staff   Selection and Enrollment Procedures

19. Training Evaluation and Tracking
when  selecting   the  modules, four  things  to remember
When it  comes  to  budget--spending  on  training/development
-it will be  never  sufficient.
-there  will  be  always  some  constraint.
-in spite  of  management desire/ great interest  in training/development,
when it  comes  to  releasing  budget, it  will  be  hard  to come.
*what  will  be  conducted / business  impact  on  minimum budget.
*what  will  be  conducted / business impact on  maximum budget.
NOW  based  on  the  information,  can  you/ your  immediate supervisor
-estimate  the  program time  for  each  program
-estimate  the   no of  time  each  program  has  to  be  run
-estimate  the  total  no.  of  hours  all  together
-estimate  who  is going  to  do it  [ take  logistics  into consideration]
-do  you need  external  trainers  , as  support
-how many / what  programs / when/where.



1. An  assessment  of the  current situation.

2. A  statement  of  purpose, outlining  what is to be  accomplished.

3.Identification  of  the  training  needs.

4. A  statement of planning  premises -significant asssumptions,
    constraints, and parameters.

5. A  forecast statement  of   factors  that  might  help or hinder
   the  end  results.

6. Desired  behaviors  are  specified.

7.Desired   competences are identified and   specified.

8.Knowledge,  skills,  and  characteristics  desired  are specified.

9. Constraints like  time, budget and  participants  attitude are identified.

10.Participants' characteristics   are  identified / listed.

11. Training  objectives  are defined / listed.

12.Training  program  contents  are outlined.
    -identifying  topic  areas to  be  covered.
   -specific  concepts  are listed
   -key points  are  specified
   -determining  the  emphasis  required on  each topic.
   -sequencing  the  topics  into  a  logical  progression.
   -establishing  a  learning  pace.

13. Selection  of  instructor(s)
      -in terms  of  scholastic  records
      -in  terms of  delivery  skills
     -in terms  of  personality
        etc etc

14. Physical  facilities
     -conference  room  [ size / layout /light/acoustics/ etc]
     -seating  arrangements
     -case study  rooms

15. Conference  room  facilities
     -equipments  required
     -stationery required
     -dining /  coffee  room  facilities
     -writing  materials
   etc  etc

16. Training   Teaching  materials
     -training agenda
     -trainer's  manual
     -participants' manual
     -case  studies
     -role  plays
      etc etc

17. Training  Methods
      -conference  method
      -management  games
      -case  study
      -senstivity  training
      -programed  instructions.

18.  Evaluations.

19. Training   schedule.

20. Training  Budget










Writing Business Plans

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Leo Lingham


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18 years working managerial experience in business planning,
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24 years in management consulting covering business planning,strategic planning, marketing planning, product planning,
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