Writing Business Plans/Business Ethics

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Question
Q4. (b) Kohlderg's views on moral development show that the more morally mature a personal becomes, the more likely it is that the person will obey the moral norms of his or her society." Discuss.
Q5. (b) In your judgment, is it wrong, from an ethical point of view, for the auto companies to submit plans for an automobile to China? Explain your answer.
Q6. (a) "Utilitarianism is the view that so long as an action provides with more measurable economic benefits than costs, the action is morally right." Identify all of the mistakes contained in this definition of utilitarianism.

Answer
4 B]  Kohlberg’s views on moral development show that the more morally mature a person becomes, the more likely it is that the person will obey the moral norms of his or her society.” Discuss


KOHLBERG'S  MORAL  DEVELOPMENT  STAGES.
Level 1. Preconventional Morality
1   Stage 1 - Obedience and Punishment
The earliest stage of moral development is especially common in young children, but adults are also capable of expressing this type of reasoning. At this stage, children see rules as fixed and absolute. Obeying the rules is important because it is a means to avoid punishment.
2   Stage 2 - Individualism and Exchange
At this stage of moral development, children account for individual points of view and judge actions based on how they serve individual needs. In the Heinz dilemma, children argued that the best course of action was the choice that best-served Heinz’s needs. Reciprocity is possible, but only if it serves one's own interests.
Level 2. Conventional Morality
1   Stage 3 - Interpersonal Relationships
Often referred to as the "good boy-good girl" orientation, this stage of moral development is focused on living up to social expectations and roles. There is an emphasis on conformity, being "nice," and consideration of how choices influence relationships.
2   Stage 4 - Maintaining Social Order
At this stage of moral development, people begin to consider society as a whole when making judgments. The focus is on maintaining law and order by following the rules, doing one’s duty and respecting authority.
Level 3. Postconventional Morality
1   Stage 5 - Social Contract and Individual Rights
At this stage, people begin to account for the differing values, opinions and beliefs of other people. Rules of law are important for maintaining a society, but members of the society should agree upon these standards.
2   Stage 6 - Universal Principles
Kolhberg’s final level of moral reasoning is based upon universal ethical principles and abstract reasoning. At this stage, people follow these internalized principles of justice, even if they conflict with laws and rules.

CHALLENGES   TO  THE  KOHLBERG'S

1   Does moral reasoning necessarily lead to moral behavior? Kohlberg's theory is concerned with moral thinking, but there is a big difference between knowing what we ought to do versus our actual actions.
2   Is justice the only aspect of moral reasoning we should consider? Critics have pointed out that Kohlberg's theory of moral development overemphasizes the concept as justice when making moral choices. Factors such as compassion, caring and other interpersonal feelings may play an important part in moral reasoning.
3   Does Kohlberg's theory overemphasize Western philosophy? Individualistic cultures emphasize personal rights while collectivist cultures stress the importance of society and community. Eastern cultures may have different moral outlooks that Kohlberg's theory does not account for.

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(b) In your judgment, is it wrong, from an ethical point of view, for the auto companies to submit plans for an automobile to China? Explain your answer.


In  ethical  point  of  view, it  may  be  wrong.

BUT  THE  PLANS  MAY  HELP  TO  ESTABLISH
ETHICAL  STANDARDS  IN  MANY   APPROACHES  IN  A  STEADY  MANNER.

There are two fundamental problems in identifying the ethical standards we are to follow:
1. On what do we base our ethical standards?
2. How do those standards get applied to specific situations we face?
If our ethics are not based on feelings, religion, law, accepted social practice, or science, what are they based on? Many philosophers and ethicists have helped us answer this critical question. They have suggested at least five different sources of ethical standards we should use.

Five Sources of Ethical Standards

The Utilitarian Approach
Some ethicists emphasize that the ethical action is the one that provides the most good or does the least harm, or, to put it another way, produces the greatest balance of good over harm. The ethical corporate action, then, is the one that produces the greatest good and does the least harm for all who are affected-customers, employees, shareholders, the community, and the environment. Ethical warfare balances the good achieved in ending terrorism with the harm done to all parties through death, injuries, and destruction. The utilitarian approach deals with consequences; it tries both to increase the good done and to reduce the harm done.

The Rights Approach
Other philosophers and ethicists suggest that the ethical action is the one that best protects and respects the moral rights of those affected. This approach starts from the belief that humans have a dignity based on their human nature per se or on their ability to choose freely what they do with their lives. On the basis of such dignity, they have a right to be treated as ends and not merely as means to other ends. The list of moral rights -including the rights to make one's own choices about what kind of life to lead, to be told the truth, not to be injured, to a degree of privacy, and so on-is widely debated; some now argue that non-humans have rights, too. Also, it is often said that rights imply duties-in particular, the duty to respect others' rights.

The Fairness or Justice Approach
Aristotle and other Greek philosophers have contributed the idea that all equals should be treated equally. Today we use this idea to say that ethical actions treat all human beings equally-or if unequally, then fairly based on some standard that is defensible. We pay people more based on their harder work or the greater amount that they contribute to an organization, and say that is fair. But there is a debate over CEO salaries that are hundreds of times larger than the pay of others; many ask whether the huge disparity is based on a defensible standard or whether it is the result of an imbalance of power and hence is unfair.

The Common Good Approach
The Greek philosophers have also contributed the notion that life in community is a good in itself and our actions should contribute to that life. This approach suggests that the interlocking relationships of society are the basis of ethical reasoning and that respect and compassion for all others-especially the vulnerable-are requirements of such reasoning. This approach also calls attention to the common conditions that are important to the welfare of everyone. This may be a system of laws, effective police and fire departments, health care, a public educational system, or even public recreational areas.

The Virtue Approach
A very ancient approach to ethics is that ethical actions ought to be consistent with certain ideal virtues that provide for the full development of our humanity. These virtues are dispositions and habits that enable us to act according to the highest potential of our character and on behalf of values like truth and beauty. Honesty, courage, compassion, generosity, tolerance, love, fidelity, integrity, fairness, self-control, and prudence are all examples of virtues. Virtue ethics asks of any action, "What kind of person will I become if I do this?" or "Is this action consistent with my acting at my best?"

Putting the Approaches Together
Each of the approaches helps us determine what standards of behavior can be considered ethical. There are still problems to be solved, however.
The first problem is that we may not agree on the content of some of these specific approaches. We may not all agree to the same set of human and civil rights.
We may not agree on what constitutes the common good. We may not even agree on what is a good and what is a harm.
The second problem is that the different approaches may not all answer the question "What is ethical?" in the same way. Nonetheless, each approach gives us important information with which to determine what is ethical in a particular circumstance. And much more often than not, the different approaches do lead to similar answers.


THE PLANS  COULD BE  THE  GATEWAY  FOR  FILTERING  THE  ‘’ETHICS ‘’   THROUGH  THE  DECISION  MAKING SYSTEM. ######################################

Q6        (a) “Utilitarianism is the view that so long as an action provides with more measurable economic benefits than costs, the action is morally right.” Identify all of the mistakes contained in this definition of utilitarianism
        


The Utilitarian Approach
Some ethicists emphasize that the ethical action is the one that provides the most good or does the least harm, or, to put it another way, produces the greatest balance of good over harm. The ethical corporate action, then, is the one that produces the greatest good and does the least harm for all who are affected-customers, employees, shareholders, the community, and the environment. Ethical warfare balances the good achieved in ending terrorism with the harm done to all parties through death, injuries, and destruction. The utilitarian approach deals with consequences; it tries both to increase the good done and to reduce the harm done



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(b) “Any pollution law is unjust because it necessarily violates people’s right to liberty and right to property.” Discuss.
 

Pollution is the contamination of air, water, or earth by harmful substances. Concern for pollution developed alongside concerns for the environment in general.  The advent of automobiles, increased chemical wastes, nuclear wastes, and accumulation of garbage in landfills created a need for legislation specifically aimed at decreasing pollution.

POLLUTION   WERE  DAMAGING  THE  HEALTH OF THE  PEOPLE
AND  THE  HEALTH  OF  THE  COUNTRY. HENCE   THE  POLLUTION LAWS
ARE  NECESSARY  EVILS, WHICH  WILL  HELP/ MANAGE  THOSE
WHO   ARE  RESPONSIBLE  FOR  THE  POLLUTION.

Among the landmark acts designed to preserve our environment is the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ;
-a comprehensive regulatory statute aimed at controlling solid waste disposal.
-The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982  aims to safely dispose of nuclear wastes.
-The Clear Air Act was first enacted in 1970, it was later amended in 1977 and again in 1990; with its present form embodied in. Like this examples demonstrate, most environmental regulations are federal in nature.
Among the types of pollution, the one that has existed longer than any other is water pollution. Its consequences are readily seen when pollutants reach groundwater reservoirs, creating serious health hazards to people drinking the water. The current version of the Federal Clean Water Act  is  another tool.

environmental law: an overview
THE  NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY  ACT [NEPA]
THE  ENVIRONMENTAL  QUALITY  IMPROVEMENT  ACT
THE  NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL   EDUCATION  ACT
THE  ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION  AGENCY  [EPA]
were  passed  in  1970.
The main objective of these federal enactments was to assure that the environment be protected against both public and private actions that failed to take account of costs or harms inflicted on the eco-system.
The EPA is supposed to monitor and analyze the environment, conduct research, and work closely with state and local governments to devise pollution control policies. NEPA  has been described as one of Congress's most far reaching environmental legislation ever passed. The basic purpose of NEPA is to force governmental agencies to consider the effects of their decisions on the environment.
State laws also reflect the same concerns and common law actions allow adversely affected property owners to seek a judicial remedy for environmental harms.
THESE  LAWS  DO NOT  violate  people right to liberty and right to property.

ON  THE CONTRARY, THESE  LAWS  SAVES  THE  LIVES  OF  MANY
AND  ALSO  THE  FUTURE  GENERATION.

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(c) Evaluate the desirability of the “caring organization.”

Core Knowledg  Areas
1   Ethical dilemmas
2   Ethical decision-making
3   Ethics risk management
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Potential Ethics Risks
1   Ethical mistakes
2   Deliberate ethical decisions
3   Ethical misconduct
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Key Risk Areas
1   Client rights
2   Confidentiality & Privacy
3   Informed consent
4   Service delivery
5   Boundary issues & Conflicts of interest
6   Documentation
7   Defamation of character
8   Client records
9   Supervision
10   Staff development & training
11   Consultation
12   Client referral
13   Fraud
14   Termination of services & Client abandonment
15   Practitioner impairment
16   Evaluation & Research
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WHAT  IS  Standard of Care
“What an ordinary, reasonable, and prudent professional, with the same or similar training, would have done under the same or similar circumstances.”

Standards of Care
1   Substantive standard of care
2   Procedural standard of care
3   Consult colleagues and supervisors
4   Review relevant ethical standards
5   Review relevant laws, policies, and regulations
6   Review relevant literature
7   Obtain legal consultation, when necessary
8   Consult ethics committee, if available
9   Document decision-making steps
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Professional Negligence
1   A duty exists
2   Dereliction or breach of the duty
3   Damage or injury
4   Causal connection between the breach of the duty and the damage or injury  
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Forms of Negligence
1   Misfeasance: Commission of a proper act in a wrongful or injurious manner or the improper performance of an act that might have been performed lawfully.
2   Malfeasance: Commission of a wrongful or unlawful act.
3   Nonfeasance: The failure to perform an act that is part of one’s responsibility.
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Boundary Issues
1   Boundary crossings v. boundary violations
2   Types of dual or multiple relationships
3   Intimate relationships
4   Personal benefit
5   Emotional & dependency needs
6   Altruism
7   Unavoidable & unanticipated circumstances
8   Ethics Committees
9   Advisory v. Deliberative
10   Functions
11   Case Consultation
12   Retrospective
13   Concurrent
14   Prospective
15   Policy review and formulation
16   Education & training
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Ethical Decision-making
1   Identify ethical issues: Conflicting values
& duties.
2   Identify individuals, groups, organizations likely to be affected by decision.
3   Tentatively identify all possible courses of action & participants involved in each, along with possible benefits & risks.  
4   Examine reasons for & against each possible course of action, considering:
5   Ethical theories, principles, guidelines
6   Codes of ethics
7   Legal principles
8   Social work practice theory & principle
9   Personal values (religious, cultural, ethnic, political)
10   Agency policies, regulations
11   Consult with colleagues & appropriate experts (e.g., agency staff, supervisors, administrators, attorneys, ethics experts)
12   Make decision & document decision-making process
13   Monitor, evaluate & document decisions
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Metaethics
1   Exploration of:
2   The meaning of ethical terms (e.g., What do we mean by terms such as “right,” “wrong,” “good,” “bad”)
3   Criteria to determine what is ethically right & wrong
4   Ethical theories & principles
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Normative Ethics
1   Deontological Theory: Certain actions are inherently right or wrong, good or bad, without regard for their consequences.
2   Teleological Theory:  The rightness of an action is determined by the goodness of its consequences (also known as “Consequentialism.”)
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Utilitarianism
1   Act Utilitarianism: The rightness of an act is determined by the goodness of the consequences in this individual set of circumstances.
2   Rule Utilitarianism: The rightness of an act is determined by the goodness of the consequences that would occur if this one action is generalized to all similar circumstances (e.g., this case sets a precedent.) #
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